Founded By:    |  _                        _______
 Guardian Of Time |  __      N.I.A.   _      ___   ___  Are you on any WAN? Are
   Judge Dredd    |  ____     ___    ___    ___     ___ you on Bitnet, Internet
------------------+  _____    ___    ___    ___     ___  Compuserve, MCI Mail,
  \           /      ___ ___  ___    ___    ___________  Sprintmail, Applelink,
   +---------+       ___  ___ ___    ___    ___________    Easynet, MilNet,
   | 20NOV91 |       ___   ______    ___    ___     ___    FidoNet, et al.?
   | File 73 |       ___    _____    ___    ___     ___ If so please drop us a
   +---------+               ____     _     __      ___        line at
  /           \               ___           _       ___
------------------+            __
     Editors:     |             _    Network Information Access
   Judge Dredd    |                    Ignorance, There's No Excuse.
   Lord Macduff   |

                             Issue 073 :: Volume 02

    "Censorship reflects society's lack of confidence in itself. It is a
hallmark of an authoritative regime."
          - Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart

1.  NIA073 Index ................................................NIA Editors
2.  Valley of the Nerds..........................................Walter Kirn
3.  Internet to Anywhere...................................Industrial Phreak
4.  Globally Tymnet................................................Hi Fi Del
5.  Report on Interexchange Carriers.................................The FCC
6.  Vox Populi: NIA News.........................................Judge Dredd
7.  Hacking the HP3000 [Part I]...................................Malefactor
8.  ** XmasCon '91 Announcement **...............................Santa Claus
9.  Editor's Comments............................................NIA Editors

                          /                     /
                          /   NIA073 / File 02  /
                          / Valley of the Nerds /
                          /   by Walter Kirn    /
                          /                     /

[Editor's Note:  Walter Kirn has written about Spike Lee and John Updike for
                 GQ.  He's working in Montana on a new short-story collection.]

The keys to our economic future are in the hands of Silicon Valley's young
computer visionaries.  And a lot of those visions are triggered by
hallucinogens created in labs just yesterday.  Welcome to the Second
Psychedelic Revolution.

They call themselves MacAddicts.  They are hard-core users of the Apple
Macintosh personal computer, and they've come to San Francisco by the tens of
thousands for their annual tribal gathering, the Macworld Expo.  Some have on
suits and carry briefcases. Some have on Grateful Deat T-shirts and carry
briefcases.  More than a few of them look MacStoned.

This is not just another convention; in many ways it's a cybernetic Woodstock,
a be-in for the Information Age.  Inside the vast Moscone Center, a dizzying
sound-and-light show is in progress as corporate exhibitors with names such as
Gizmo Technologies, MacroMind and Lifetree push their mind-bending wares,
both hard and soft.  The conventioneers stand mesmerized before the pulsing
VDTs, absorbing each new data rush with giddy nods.  A bearded man in an
ill-fitting sport coat (he looks as if he wearrs a serape at home and subsists
on ogranic trail mix) stares at a screen aswarm with 3-D graphics and grins
beatifically.  The Mac is beautiful, long live the Mac.  Even the Japanese in
attendance seem caught up in the digital euphoria.  There is no doubt about
it: The Apple PC, conceived in a garage by Stevens Jobs and Wozniak, has
evolved from a kind of homegrown, countercultural calculator into a
multibillion-dollar commercial miracle.

But the Macintosh is not the only attraction at the Macworld Expo.  On the
sidewalk outside the convention hall, a trollish young man with
shoulder-length hair and a funky brocade vest is drawing his own adoring
audience.  Ken Goffman, known to his public by the pen name R.U. Sirius, is
the editor of _Mondo 2000_, a rapidly growing desktop-published glossy
magazine that documents, among other things, the strange convergence of
psychedelic-dru use and avant-garde computer science.  Recent articles have
included an interview with Timothy Leary on highter computer conscionsness
(LSD meets the PC), a rundown of the latest intelligence-boosting
pharmaceuticals and a talk with medical scientist John Lilly, the inventor of
the sensory-deprivation tank and the trippy pioneer of human/dolphin

Today, Goffman has a new issue for sale, and MacAddicts, even the suited,
Roledexed ones, are lining up to purchase it (at $5.95 a copy) at an
astonishing rate.  Possible thinking I'm with _Mondo_, one of the buyers
apologizes to me for his Brooks Brothers costume ("My straight clothes")
techie friends plan to drop 25D, a mild designer hallucinogen, and check out
musician/computer-head Todd Rundgren's Utopia Grokware products.

I look at the man's Macworld Expo badge and see that he's an employee of a
major San Jose software firm.  It doesn't surprise me at all.  I've been in
California for almost two weeks, deep in the psycho-silicon jungle, and I've
met enough of its denizens to know that the "enemy" in the war on drugs
includes quite a few of our country's best minds and leading scientific
innovators.  (Jobs, for example, is a self-confessed former acidhead.)  If a
massive nationwide raid were held today, it would net mathematicians,
inventors, technicians and a multitude of free-lance visionaries--the very
people we're counting on to beat out the Japanese, renew a stagnant economy
and generally lead us in to the MacFuture.  Indeed, this corps of turned-on
nerds has already helped to change our lives, providing much of the high-test
zeal that has joysticked us from the age of heavy industry into the
point-and-click MacPresent of megabytes and mice, shrinking the modern office
to the size of a laptop computer and enlarging the laptop computer, via such
things as modems and networks, into a walkie-talkie for the global village.

So before the crackdown goes any farther, perhaps it's time to ask: Can
America afford to take the "high" out of high technology?

Arnie Greif is the sort of young man who free-market conservatives applaud in
principle but tent to ignore, or even to attack, in practice: a committed,
free-thinknig entrepreneur.  Along with his wife, Sherri, he operates a
business, FractalVision, out of a modest one-story house in a Los Angeles
suburb.  He keeps a punishing schedule.  By day, he toils full-time as a
systems analyst for a large electronics corporation, then puts in another
forty or fifty hours a week at the Sun workstation computer in his den.
Fortunately, the long nocturnal hours are paying off.  Unlike most small
businesses these days, FractalVision is growing and has doubled income every
year since 1987.

Basically, what FractalVision produces is digitized hallucinations.  Greif
pops a tape into his VCR and plays some of the for me.  Immediately, the
screen is suffused with flowing fields of vibrant imagery.  The images are
abstract yet familiar, outrageous yet structured--the sort of shapes people
often see after taking magic mushrooms.  An iridescent snowbank melts away in
time-lapse motion.  Colonies of Martian microbes fuse and mutate and split
apart.  The effect on the viewer is slightly disconcerting; you feel as if
you're peering into your own brain, watching neutrons fire by the millions.
Greif explains that the forms are not random but are visual ranslations of
cretain simple equations fed into his computer.  This so-called "fractal
geometry"--pioneered by Benoit Mandelbrot, an IBM research scientist--governs
the behavior of natural phenomena from waterfalls to clouds to brainwaves.
This is the new psychedelia, where math and mysticism mix.

"On the Fourth of July, 1979," Greif says, "I stared at a blank white wall.  I
was doing a lot of hallucinogens at the time, and patterns like these are what
I saw.  Later, I discovered fractal geometry and learned that these shapes are
the building blocks of the universe.  Now I am able to reproduce these forms
mathematically rather than chemically."

Arnie goes on to detail the applications of his fractal designs.  Some have
appeared in music videos--in Cher's _Heart of Stone_, for example.  Also,
psychotherapists have used his tapes as relaxation aids for their patients.
And the principles underlying the designs have implications for acoutic
science. Currently, he is working with an engineer to improve studio recording

Eventually, I ask the 30-year-old Grief if he still trips.  It seems like an
inappropriate question, given the squareness of our surrounding: a living room
straight out of the Leviz catalogue, strictly suburban sub-modern.

"No, but that doesn't mean I won't go out there again," he says, toying with a
strand of shag run. "I've got kids now, so it's hard, it's hard to find the
time.  I don't really side with the war on drugs, however.  Psychedelic drugs
are like a chef's knife: dangerous in the wrong hands but useful to the

He nods at the video monitor and adds, "I don't think I could have
accomplished what I have without them."

Among high-tech entrepreneurs, Arnie Greif is not alone in feeling that
chemicals and achievement really can mix, all those stern public-service
announcements notwithstanding.  Ron Lawrence and Vicki Marshall are the
founders of a company called KnoWare, a Los Angeles publishing firm and
Macintosh consultancy.  "Whatever problem you're having with the Mac," Ron
boasts, "we're here to solve it.  Day or night." Most recently, KnoWare was
summoned to troubleshoot the office system of a West Coast fashion magazine.

Lawrence, a 45-year-old Vietnam eteran who returned from the war depressed and
alienated, credits his personal salvation to three forces: the Macintosh
computer, the writings of Timothy Leary (which KnoWare publishes) and
psychedelic drugs.  "Drugs for me were a catalyst," he says.  "By taking
sychedelics, you clean out the storage banks and have to reprogram yourself.
Thats what I did.  And that's what I do with this baby here."  He pats his
computer as if it were a pet, as if it were part of himself.

"Just like with the mind," says Lawrence, "nothing appears on that screen that
you don't put there.  Psychedelics teach you that."

David (not his real name) is a graduate of a top East Coast engieering program.
He commutes from his communal house in Berkeley to a computing job at one of
America's leading producers of professional video equipment.  I interview him in

hi home office, where he conducts a sideline business designing custom software
packages.  On the other side of the office door, at the kitchen table, his
housemates are using razor blades to strip the tough green skin off a large San
Pedro cactus, hoping to get at the mescaline inside.

David's fingers wander lightly over his computer keyboard as he describes the
appeal of psychoactive drugs for himself and some of his high-tech peers.  his
tranquil, cloistered manner reminds me of a friend of mine--an acidhead Ivy
League computing major, who, last time I heard from him, was living near Palo
Alto doing classified Star Wars research.

"If you think about it," says David, "the computer is an alien presence.  it
takes a lot of courage to relate to such an amazing machine.  Drugs help me to
overcome my fear of the computer--especially the new drugs.  For example, there
was the time I used U4ia [a long-acting form of amphetamine] to solve a knotty
programming problem.  I'd been stuck on this problem for ages, and the drug help

to free up my mind enough so I could see it in a while new way."

The new drugs David is referring to come in an almost limitless variety.
Because the drugs' molecular structures are somewhat malleable and can be
changed around faster than the DEA can identify them, some of the newest have
yet to made illegal.  A number of the substances are designed and manufactured
by respectable degree-holding chemists, one of whom is a full professor at a
prestigious California university.  There is MDMA, or ecstasy, which is said to
evoke Aquarian feelings of love and brotherhood.  There is ketamine, a potent
operating-room anesthetic that I came across maybe a half-dozen times in my
Silicon Valley travels.  Ketamine, says David, "takes you on a submarine ride
ton the bottom of the universe."  Then there is DMT, the _Tyrannosaurus rex_ of
psychedelics.  Usually spoken of by users with a certain wide-eyed, trembling
awe, DMT has the power, in the words of one programmer i met," to completely
annihilate your ego in about a minute.  Your body falls off like a peeled
banana skin, and you rocket away in a ray of white light to the edge of known

Egoless, bodiless white-light astral travel sounds like pretty scary stuff, and
those who have tried DMT readily admit its perils.  One mathematics professor I
interviewed put it this way: "YOu use the drug three times, and the words 'brain

damage' literally appear before your eyes."  Indeed, such sober warnings were
common among the turned-on techies I encountered.  For them, drug use is serious

business, requiring meticulous preflight preparations.  Prior to takeoff, a
typical user fortifies his system with plenty of fruit juice and vitamins, then
loads the CD player with congenial music--Bach, perhaps, for thte austerely
intellectual; the Red Hot Chili Peppers for the more adventurous.  He may even
consult an instruction manual, such as the closely typed four-page leaflet that
sometimes is provided by hyperresponsible dealers with doses of MDMA ("After an
MDMA session, great care must be taken in swallowing solid food, since there is
a minimem amount of anesthesia present...").  In the one DMT "experiment" I
witnessed, the subject was carefully watched and attended to by a notetaking,
water-drinking friends--the psychedelic equivalent of a designated driver.

In this world of oddly stringent trippers, where so many genious IQs are on the
line, there is little patience for sloppy procedure.  The goal is intellectual
adventure, not intoxication.  Alcohol is widely dismissed as insufficiently
insight-inducing.  Cigarettes are scarce.  Cocaine is charged with promoting
aggression and stupidity.  The drug-taking is discreet, almost monklike, and,
consequently, busts are rare.  None of my sources showed any interest in winning

converts to higher chemical consciousness, let alone in making money off of drug

sales.  (Concerned parents will want to note that it doesn't seem likey DMT and
ketamine will soon appear on your local playground, despite their popularity at
your local high-tech research park.)

Readers may logically wonder at this point just how people like David hold on to

thier joob, considering the amount of time they spend riding cosmic submarines.
What's more, in this age of widespread drug testing, how did they get their job
in the first place?  The answers to these questions lie in the nonconformist,
fairly hallucinogenic nature of the computer industry itself.  In a business
that seeks to shrink the human mind and put it in a box for easy access, access
to one's own mind is not a guilty pleasure but something approaching a duty.

R.U. Sirius, whose journalistic rounds put him in constant contact with
Siliconites of all descriptions, says, "In my experience, the most creative
people in computers experiment with drugs.  It's a very bizarre culture, where
the freaks are the elite.  At a company like Autodesk [a cutting edge developer
of virtual-reality technology], the R&D department includes a little room full
of people in sandals, with hair down to their ass.  At Apple, they buy group
tickets to the Grateful Dead show at the end of the year."

But what about bad trips?  What about those terrifying times when the submarine
fails to surface?  R.U.'s answer brims with common sense: "People in those
fields, if they know what they're doing, seldom freak out.  Say that a computer
person takes some acid now, in 1991, and everything he sees and hears and feels
in speeding by and changing shape.  What's the difference between that and his
everyday reality?"

Chip Krauskopt is the manager of the Human Interface Programat Intel
Corporation, the nation's top maker of microprocessors and also a Defense
contractor.  He corroborates R.U.'s impressions.  That Krauskopf is
willing--even eager--to speak for attribution underlines Silicon Valley's
no-sweat attitude toward chemical recreation.

"Some of the people here are very, very, very bright," says Krauskopf.  "They
were bored in school, and, as a result, they hung out, took drugs and got into
computers.  A lot of people I know took exactly that path.  And remember, this
is an industry that grew up in the Sixties, so there was never any stigma
against so-called 'hippies.'  People at Intel get judged strictly by how good
they are.  If their skills and arguments are strong, nobody cares if they wear
tie-dye and sandals."

But what about the urine tests often required by the federal government for
suppliers such as Intel?  Don't they weed out the heads?  Well, no. For one
things, urinalysis does not detect most hallucinogens--a fact that led
cyberessayist Robert Anton Wilson to predict, in Mondo 2000, "The corporate
structure of the short-term future will therefore this our the ranks of pot
smokers and coke freaks while the acid heads climb merrily upward in the
heirarchy."  Furthermore, the tests can pick up only relatively high
concentrations of drugs, and Intel's executives virtually see to it that
potential employees have an opportunity to clean up their act, at least
temporarily, before their pee is screened.

"We tell candidates when they first come in for an interview that eventually
they will be tested," says Krauskopf.  "The levels that are tested at, you see,
are such that you have to have taken drugs in the past forty-eight hours.
Unless you're a total idiot and do drugs every day, you're going to test clean."

If this comes as disturbing news to the straitlaced--the idea that inside the
high inside the high-tech core of everything from your office PC to the guidance

system of the Patriot missle lurks a psychedelic genie--just consider the
alternative.  If the drug testing were effective and if it had begun, say,
twenty-five years ago, chances are that some of our country's most vital
industries might not exist today.  Software magnate Mitch Kapor, founder of
Lotus Development, whose 1-2-3 spreadsheet forever changed accounting, has
publicly credited "recreational chemicals" with helping him form his business
outlook.  David Bunnell, who started PC Magazine and helped create the Altair,
oe of the first personal computers, remembers his co-poineers as looking as if
"they were just coming down off a ten-year acid trip."  (One of Bunnell's hippie

colleagues, Microsoft's Bill Gates, is now one of the country's richest
individuals, worth more than $4 billion.)

It's time to face fact, America.  With our buttoned-down financiers in prison,
our uptight bankers in bankruptcy and our automotive titans in retreat, perhaps
our freaks are our last, best hope.  And it's not that they've been co-opted by
the system--they've co-opted it.  Yesterday's dropouts, in many cases, are
todays insiders, and some of today's head honchos are heads.
  But what about tommorrow?

If you're looking for a prophet of the scientific future, you could do worse
than mathematician Ralph Abraham, a shaggy middle-aged professor at the
University of California, Santa Cruz, who can use the word "grok" in casual
conversation and get away with it.  Abraham's revolutionary specialty, in which
he is an acknowledged leader, has come to be known as "chaos math" or "dynamical

system theory."  What people such as Abraham try to do is graph and predict,
with the help of computers, seemingly unpredictable events: global climatic
change, the rise and fall of financial markets, even the social origins of war.
What makes this math revolutionary, of course, is that no one has really
mastered it yet, although aficianados believe it can be mastered and that the
attempt is eminently worht making.

The driving idea behind chaos math--that there is order in randomness and
randomness in order--sounds like one of those drug-induced epiphanies you scrawl

on a napkin at 3am and then throw away the next day.  Well, in a rather literal
sense, it is a drug-inspired notion, except that ralph Abraham kept the napkin
and has been doodling on it ever since.

"In the 1960s," he says, "a lot of people on the frontiers of math experimented
with psychedelic substances.  There was a brief and extremely creative kiss
between the community of hippies and top mathematics.  I know this because I was

a purveyor of psychedelics to the mathematical community."

Math and acid--not, on would think, a natural combination.  It's like hearing a
champion marathon runner credit his success to chain-smoking Camels.  I'm
confused.  The image of a frying egg ("This is your brain on drugs") flashes in
my mind's eye.

Abraham explains, "To be creative in mathematics, you have to start from a point

of total oblivion.  Basically, math is revealed in a totally unconscious process

in which one is completely ignorant of the social climate.  And mathematical
advance has always been the motor behind the advancement of consciousness.
What's going on now with dynamical systems theory is at least big a thing as the

invention of the wheel."

He glances at his desk, at the ubiquitous Macintosh sitting the, with its blind
gray screen.  "Without this machine, of course," says Abraham, "what we're doing

now would not be possible.  The computer extends our intellect, which helps us
create the future.  It offers a door to perceiving complex space-time

Abraham explains, "To be creative in mathematics, you have to start from a point

of total oblivion.  Basically, math is revealed in a totally unconscious process

in which one is completely ignorant of the social climate.  And mathematical
advance has always been the motor behind the advancement of consciousness.
What's going on now with dynamical systems theory is at least as big a thing as
the invention of the wheel."

He glances at his desk, at the ubiquitous Macintosh sitting there, with its
blind gray screen.  "Without this machine, of course," says Abraham, "what we're

doing now would not be possible.  The computer extends our intellect, which
helps us create the future.  It offers a door of perception were cleansed every
thing would appear to man as it is, infinite."  But what, according to Abraham,
will all this infinite portal-cleansing bring? Nothing less, he predicts, than
global peace.

"Social science, up until now, has not been very scientific.  Now, with
computers and the new mathematics, we may be able to change that.  Soon we may
be able to map and manipulate a certain set of parametes--social, cultural,
economic, geographical--that will help us to anticipate and mediate
international conflict.  Loving on the largest possible scale will be enhanced
by the intellectual capability to understand the complexity of the systems in
which we live."
  Spoken like a true Macflower child.

They are sitting in a darkened Berkeley living room, talking about virtual
reality and smoking the milder, powdered form of ketamine.  I'm with them but
not with them, if you catch my drift.  The ketamite is a bit way-out for me, and

the conversation too.  Because I don't wish these folks legal hassles, I won't
say who they are, just that they know a lot about computers (on man runs a
thriving electronics research firm) and more than a thing or two about drugs.

Their speech, in case you're wondering, as perfectly coherent.  Alarmingly
coherent, when you consider its content.

"You know that telephone-company saving," someone pipes up from the couch,
" `Reach out and touch someone'?  Well, soon, with the help of virtual reality,
you will be able to do that, literally.  You'll wear a kind of bodysuit with
hundreds of little sensors and vibrators.  You'll plug it into your computer,
your partner across the country will plug in too, and you'll be able to feel
each other up by moving around in the suits.  There's a term for it already,
`teledildonics.'  The phenomenon of long-distance sex."

The beautiful young woman sitting beside him--she's a computer musician, and we
have just finished listening to her tape--takes a hit of ketamine, then says,
"Perfect.  No diseases.  No unwanted pregnancies."

"Here's something else," says another young man.  "It's very, very possible that

someday we will be able to transfer the contents of our brains straight onto a

"Why?"  I ask.  "Why wouuld we want to do something like that?"

"Come on," he says, "we do it already.  We do it all the time, whenever we type
our ideas into a compter.  In the future, we'll just do it faster, more

I concede that, yes, it's a thought.  They're all thoughts.  Teledildonics,
that's a thought too.

And as the room fills up with thoughts--Utopian, stange, inspiring,
ridiculous--it strikes me that this is precisely what Americans are supposed to
do:  think freely, then try to apply those thoughts, skeptics and solid citizens

be damned.  Ford did it, Eddison did it, Jobs and Wozniak did it, Eddison did
it, Ralph Abraham is doing it now.  It's what we're good at and, coincidentally,

what some of our international competitors--with their ancient social rule books

and close-order corporate calisthenic sessions--aren't so good at.  In his
recent book, _More Like Us_,  Japan expert James Fallows argued convincingly
that instead of trying tto ape Japan's regimented industrial economy, the United

States would do better to unleash its individualistic potential.  This may be
another way of saying that weirdness can be an export commodity.

Timothy Leary, who has welcomed the computer revolution with his characteristic
cosmic enthusiasm, agrees.  While Leary may be a prophet without honor in his
own country, the Japanese think otherwise, and he is much in demand there as a
lecturer and cultural consultant.  "Japan is a tightly structured hive society,
and they knokw it," says Leary.  "So just as they go the Middle East for oil and

Australia for wood, they come to California for creativity.  They realize that
creativity is a raw resource and that we have an abundance of it here."

Part of the recipe for that abundance, like it or not, is chemical.  When
encountering some bizarre high-tech marvel, we often that we suspect, we're
right.  And how should we react to this?  Is say: as tolerantly and calmly as
possible.  A little brain damage, in the end, may be a small price to pay for
major brainstorms.  And it's not as if we could stop these people even if we
wanted to.  As ever, the pioneers will continue to pioneer, assuming whatever
risks they deem necessary.  Judge them not by the trips they take but by the
gifts they carry back.


                         /                       /
                         /    NIA073 / File 03   /
                         /  Internet 2 Anywhere  /
                         /   Industrial Phreak   /
                         /                       /

        In the last issue of Phrack magazine was published the uucp to
compuserve gateway material.  In light of the recent happenings of
Phrack magazine I have decided to write the uucp to anywhere material
and send it to NIA.  This file will tell you how to recieve and send mail
to everywhere reachable from internet.  This is meant for those just starting
on using the internet and thus the experienced users
and dry.  --Industrial Phreak

Current networks that are connected by a gateway are as follows:

  applelink     AppleLink (Apple Computer, Inc.'s in-house network)
  attmail       AT&T Mail,AT&T's commercial e-mail service.
  bitnet        international academic network
  bix           Byte Information eXchange: Byte magazine's commercial BBS
  bmug          Berkeley Macintosh Users Group
  compuserve    commercial time-sharing service
  connect       Connect Professional Information Network (commercial)
  easynet       Easynet (DEC's in-house mail system)
  envoy         Envoy-100 (Canadian commercial mail service)
  fax           Facsimile document transmission
  fidonet       PC-based BBS network
  geonet        GeoNet Mailbox Systems (commercial)
  internet      the Internet
  mci           MCI's commercial electronic mail service
  mfenet        Magnetic Fusion Energy Network
  nasamail      NASA internal electronic mail
  peacenet      non-profit mail service
  sinet         Schlumberger Information NETwork
  span          Space Physics Analysis Network (includes HEPnet)
  sprintmail    Sprint's commercial mail service (formerly Telemail)
  thenet        Texas Higher Education Network

Ok, here goes the rest:

I'm at: applelink
You're at: internet
To mail you i write to "user@domain@internet#" in which the domian can
be the form of "site.bitnet" w/the address being less than 35 characters

I'm at: AT&T Mail (Herein: attmail)
You're at: internet
To mail you I write to "internet!domain!user".  For any problems contact
the AT&T Mail Customer Assistance Center at 1.800.MAIL.672

I'm at: bitnet
You're at: internet
There are a few ways of doing this depending upon your software.  In
most cases "user@domain" should work.  If this doesn't, try
"user%domain@gateway" where "gateway" is a regional Bitnet-Internet
gateway site.

I'm at: compuserve
You're at: fax machine
To send you something I simply send (in USA only) "FAX number".  If you
were at the number +1 512 666 1234 then in the number field I would put
"15126661234".  Not difficult.

I'm at: compuserve
You're at: mci
If your address at mci was 666-6969 I would put ">MCIMAIL:666-6969".

I'm at: connect
You're at: internet
I would send to CONNECT id "DASNET" and on the first line of the message
put "\"user@domain\"@DASNET"

I'm at: easynet
You're at: bitnet
The gateway is DECWRL::ADMIN.  Therefore from VMS use NMAIL to send to
"nm%DECWRL::\"user@site.bitnet\"".  From Unix send to "user@site.bitnet"
or if that fails send (via IP) "\"user%site.bitnet\""
or (via DECNET) send "DECWRL::\"user@site.bitnet\""

I'm at: envoy
You're at:  internet
The gateway is ICS.TEST or ICS.BOARD.  Therefore send to
"[RFC-822=\"user(a)domain\"]INTERNET/TELEMAIL/US" and for special
characters use @=(a) !=(b) _=(u) any=(three octal digits)

I'm at: fidonet
You're at: internet
Just send to "uucp" at the nearest gateway site and in the first line
put "To: user@domain"

I'm at: geonet
You're at: internet
I would send to "DASNET" and in the subject line put

I'm at: GSFCMail
You're at: internet
The nearest gateway is cust.svc.  Therefore at the "To:" type POSTMAN
and at the first line of your message enter "To: user@domain"

I'm at: GSFCMail
You're at: NASAMAIL
The gateway is cust.svc so send to

I'm at: GSFCMail
You're at: span (now nsi-decnet)
The gateway is cust.svc.  At the "To:" type "POSTMAIN" and in the first
line of the message type "To: user@host.SPAN.NASA.GOV" or use GSFCCNE
gateway and send it to

I'm at: GSFCMail
You're at: sprintmail
For public networks send it to
and for private networkds send it to

I'm at: internet
You're at: applelink
Just send it to ""

I'm at: internet
You're at: attmail
Again just send it to ""

I'm at: internet
You're at: bitnet
I would send it to "user%site.bitnet@gateway" where gateway is the
gateway host like or

I'm at: internet
You're at: bix
Just send it to ""

I'm at: internet
You're at: bmug
If your name was Jack Off then I would send it to

I'm at: internet
You're at: compuserve
If your ID was "76969.666" then I would send it to

I'm at: internet
You're at: connect
If your NAME was JACK the I'd send it to ""

I'm at: internet
You're at: easynet
Your field is HOST::USER so I would send it to ""
or "".

I'm at: internet
You're at: easynet
Lets say you're Jack Off @CUM, then I would send it to

I'm at: internet
You're at: econet
The gateway is  so I would send to "".

I'm at: internet
You're at: envoy
I'd send to "att!attmail!mhs!envoy!userid@UUNET.UU.NET" or if that
didn't work thru US Sprint's X.400 gateway to

I'm at: internet
You're at: fidonet
If you were jack off at 1:2/13:69 then I'd send to

I'm at: internet
You're at: geonet
I'd send to "".  [NOTE: the American host is geo4
and European host is geo1].

I'm at: internet
You're at: GSFCMail
The gateway is so I'd send to

I'm at: internet
You're at: mci
You're Jack Off (123-4567) I'd send to "".

I'm at: internet
You're at: mfenet
Then I'd send to ""

I'm at: internet
You're at: nasamail
The gateway is  so I'd send it to

I'm at: internet
You're at: peacenet
The gateway is  so I'd send it to "".

I'm at: internet
You're at: signet (through FidoNet)
Ok, you're Jack Off again at 1:2/13:69 send it to (thats the Fido-SigNet gateway) and in
the first line put "@DOMAIN SIGNet 1:2/13:69 FidoNet 2:2/527".  [NOTE:
The sysop of the gateway can be reached

I'm at: internet
You're at: sinet
Your fields are node::user or node1::node::user so send to
"user@node.SINet.SLB.COM" or "user%node@node1.SINet.SLB.COM"

I'm at: internet
You're at: span (now nsi-decnet)
Your field is host::user and the gateway is
so send to "user@host.SPAN.NASA.GOV"

I'm at: internet
You're at: sprintmail
The gateway is so for public networks send to
or if you know the recipients registered full name
for private networks send to

I'm at: internet
You're at: thenet
Send to ""

I'm at: internet
You're at: uninet (South Africa) (Thru FidoNet)
Send the message to (a list of uninet
nodes can be obtained with a SEND UNINODE)

I'm at: mci
You're at: internet
At the "To" prompt type "Jack Off (EMS)" at "EMS:" type "internet" and
at the "Mbx:" type "user@domian".

I'm at: nasamail
You're at: internet
At the "To:" prompt type "POSTMAN" and at the "Text:" (i.e. as the first
line of your message) enter "To: user@domain".

I'm at: sinet
You're at: internet
Send it to "M_MAILNOW::M_INTERNET::\"user@domain\"" or

I'm at: span (now nsi-decnet)
You're at: GSFCMain
The gateway is mssdca::netmgr so send to

I'm at: span
You're at: internet
The gateway is nssdca::netmgr so send it to "AMES::\"user@domain\""

I'm at: sprintmail
You're at: internet
The gateway is (c:usa,admd:telemail,o:telenet.tele,fn:technical,sn:support,i:t)

I'm at: thenet
You're at: internet
So you send it to "UTADNX::WINS%" user@domain "

Networks not connected American Online, British Telecom Gold, DialCom,
Dialog, Easylink, Eurokom, Fidelity Investments, GEnie, GoldNet, HandsNet,
Midas Internation HQ, Nifty-Serve, OMNET (thru CMR send mail to OMNET users
by "[omnet.user/OMNET]MAIL/USA%TELEMAIL"@Inetermail.ISI.EDU", Paranet,
PC-Relay, Prodigy [thank god], PROFS (general), PROFS (IBM), QUICK-COMM, SABRE,
Telemail, VNET.

For comments on the file I can be found on internet at

                      /                              /
                      /       NIA073 / File 04       /
                      /   Globally Tymnet [01/02]    /
                      /        by Hi Fi Del          /
                      /                              /

        The following countries and their connections with Tymnet I have
organized information on.  This is in list/table type format.  These countries
are detailed: Jamaca, Japan, Kuwait, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands
and New Zealand.  For those of ya' that don't know very much about Tymnet,
see one of the numerous files that have been done on the basics.  Enjoy!

                             --- JAMAICA ---


      1.  TYMUSA Gateway Host Number: 5368
      2.  Node Number: 3676
      3.  Rates:  $10.00/hour and $.50/Kchar
      4.  Dialup Locations and Numbers:
          (1.809) 924-9915   300/1200   Bps   Bell 212A
      5.  Trouble Reporting Center:
          Support (local)
          phone: (1.809) 921 5312
          Hours of Operation:  24hrs


 Jamaica International Telecommunications Ltd.  Net. Name: JAMANTEL
 15, North Street                               DNIC: 3380
 P.O. Box 138
 Kingston, Jamaica
 Contact:  Mr. Rickards                         (809) 921-5316/922-6063
                                                Telex: (381) 112
                                                OnTyme: INTL.JAMINTELCOMM

 1.  ACCESS/SPEEDS:    Async dial-in/leased speeds:   300-1200 bps
                       Synchronous leased speeds:     2400-9600 bps

 2.  PROTOCOLS:        Async terminal interface, Sync X.25

 3.  PRICES:           All Prices are in Jamaican Dollars.
                       (1 $ U.S. = 5.35 Jam. $)
                       Connect time:          $          .75/minute
                       Transmission:          $         2.25/Kchar.

 4.  COMMENTS: n/a

 --------------- OPERATIONAL/TECHNICAL INFORMATION -------------------

     Contact: Trouble Reporting
     Hours of Operation: 24hrs
     Phone: (809) 921 5312
     Fax: (809) 921 5329
     Ontyme: INTL.JAMINTEL





     TYMNET STYLE "please log in:  "




     City/Territory        Modem/Speed             Access Number
    Kingston              Bell 212A/300-1200bps         (809)924-9915

                             --- JAPAN ---


     1.  TYMUSA Gateway Host Number: 5404
     2.  Dialup Node(s): TYM2 Gateway Node(s): 222
     3.  Rates:    $11.40/Hour    $0.30/Kilocharacter
     4.  Dialup Locations and Numbers:

     City        V.21/300bps     V.22/1200bps     V.22 1200/2400bps
     --------    -----------     ------------     ---------------
     Akita       0188-65-5735                      0188-65-5733
     Atsugi      0462-21-5331                      0462-21-0404
     Chiba       0472-27-0671                      0472-27-0601
     Fukui       0776-34-3308                      0776-35-8840
     Fukuoka     092-474-7076                      092-474-7196
     Hamamatsu   0534-56-7355                      0534-56-7231
     Hiroshima   082-241-6857                      082-243-9270
     Kagoshima   0992-22-8598                      0992-22-8954
     Kanazawa    0762-24-2351                      0762-24-2341
     Kobe        078-242-1097                      078-242-1115
     Kouriyama                                     0249-38-5396
     Kumamoto    096-355-5233                      096-354-3065
     Kyoto       075-431-6205                      075-431-6203
     Matsuyama   0899-32-2975                      0899-32-4207
     Mito        0292-24-1675                      0292-24-4213
     Morioka     0196-54-8513                      0196-54-7315
     Nagasaki    0958-28-6088                      0958-28-6077
     Nagoya      052-911-1621                      052-981-3221
     Naha        0988-61-4002                      0988-61-3414
     Niigata     025-241-5409                      025-241-5410
     Nogano                                        0262-34-3900
     Ohita                                         0975-38-2160
     Okayama     0862-32-6760                      0862-31-4993
     Osaka       06-271-9028      06-271-9029      06-271-6876
     Sendai      022-231-5741                      022-231-5355
     Sapporo     022-231-5741                      022-231-5355
     Shizuoka    0542-84-3393                      0542-84-3398
     Takamatsu   0878-23-0502                      0878-23-0501
     Takasaki                                      0273-23-9739
     Tokuyama                                      0834-32-0991
     Tokyo       03-555-9525      03-555-9526      03-555-9696
     Toyama      0764-41-7578                      0764-41-7769
     Tsuchiura   0298-55-6123                      0298-55-6121
     Tuchiura    0298-55-5082                      0298-55-6121
     Urawa                                         048-833-9341
     Utsunomiya                                    0286-34-8251
     Yokohama    045-453-7757                      045-453-7637
     Yonago                                        0859-32-3201

     5.  Trouble Reporting Center:
         Support (local)
         Phone: (011.81.3)-551-6220
         Hours of Operation: 24hrs/day, 7days/week.
         Contact: Network Control Center

         Domestic Username has to be valid with access from  Class


 SERVICE OFFERINGS:  4406/NISnet  (National & International)

 Network Information Service Co. (Tymnet Japan)    Net. Name:  NISNET
 Marketing and Sales Division                      DNIC:  4406
 1-13-5 Kudanshita Chiyoda-Ku
 Tokyo, Japan 102

 Contact:  Mr. Toshi Murakami                      Tel   :(81.3)-262-8711
                                                   Fax   :(81.3)-262-8757
                                                   Telex :(781)29720

 U.S. Contact:  Mr. Nobuhiro Takayama              Tel:  (212)351-5059
                Regional Manager of USA            Fax:  (212)351-5860
                c/o BT Tymnet, Inc.
                335 Madison Avenue, 11th Floor
                New York, New York 10017

 1.  ACCESS/SPEED:    Asynchronous dial-in speeds:  300, 1200, 2400bps
                      Asynchronous leased speeds :  300-2400bps, 9600bps
                      Synchronous leased speeds  :  2400-14400bps

 2.  PROTOCOLS:    Async, X.PC, Sync, X.25, RJE, 3270 Bisync, SDLC, CMT & SNA.
                   (IBM, HITACHI, FUJITSU dialects supported)

 3.  PRICES:          Please reference COMMENTS.

     Service Lead Times:  NUI 3 days; Leased lines 30-45 days


     I. Service description

        Service name: Pegasus

        1) T2 (TYMNET) Gateway Services

                    (NIS)                       (TYMNET)

                    ASYNC                        ASYNC
                    ASYNC                        X.25
                    X.25                         ASYNC
                    X.25                         X.25

                    3270 BSC Native              3270 BSC Native
                    (IBM, HITACHI, FUJITSU)       (IBM HOST)

                    3270 XNA/CMT                 ASYNC
                    3270 BSC/CMT                 ASYNC
                    (IBM, HITACHI, FUJITSU)
                    ASYNC                        3270 BSC/CMT(IBM)
                    ASYNC                        3270 SNA/CMT(IBM)

                    SDLC                         SDLC

                    3780                         3780

       ** X.PC is available in ASYNC protocol.
       ** Public TymDial 9.6 is available at Tokyo.
       ** X.25, SDLC, XNA interface is available at Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya,
          Sappolo, Sendai, Fukui, Okayama, Fukuoka,Toyama and Shizuoka.

       2) X.75 Gateway Services

                    (NIS)                       (TYMNET)

                    ASYNC                        ASYNC
                    ASYNC                        X.25
                    X.25                         ASYNC
                    X.25                         X.25

                    3270 BSC/CMT                 ASYNC
                    3270 SNA/CMT                 ASYNC

                    ASYNC                        3270 BSC/CMT
                    ASYNC                        3270 SNA/CMT

       3) International Dedicated Connection

          The IDC service is designed to provide any dedicated interface
          customer with a ceiling on  connect time charges across their
          link.  The customer will be charged a flat $1,000 or 140,000
          yen connect time charge for each interface which receives
          billing (either U.S. or Japan), plus normal character charges
          (see below).  This means that a customer with one interface on each
          network making, host to host calls, will pay one IDC charge.
          Two interfaces receiving IDC traffic will be assess one IDC fixed
          charge for each interface.  This is an ideal service where PVC's
          are required, for back-up service to an international leased line,
          or any dedicated application that uses more than 85 to 90
          hours per month.  A separate order must be entered in
          OES to obtain this facility (see file, NIS.DOC).

       4) TYMUSA Service: Yes

    II. Pricing.


     Rates are classified into Dedicated port services and Public(Dial-up)
     services.  (Note 1$ U.S. = 150.53 Yen as of 7/90).

     1. Dedicated line services

                                          Monthly rate

      1) General accounting charge          25,000 yen

        This charge applies to all leased line customers.

        (Note) Current users that already use NIS domestic service
               will be charged 5,000 yen only, in addition to domestic
               General accounting rate.

      2) Dedicated port charge               8,000 yen

         This charge applies to all dedicated interfaces.

      3) Each NUI                              500 yen

      4) Enhanced service charge            15,000 yen

          This charge applies to customers using BSC or SDLC.

      5) International Dedicated Connection (P.V.C.)

             140,000 yen or $1,000 per month.
             This eliminates all connect charges.
             IDC is charged on a per interface basis,
             $1,000 for all connect charges across a
             link (see description above).

      6) Leased line charge including a pair of modems.

                                                 (yen per month)
         I               -10 km  -20km   -30km    -60km    -120km I
         I 2400bps line  28,000  43,000  74,000  102,000  156,000 I
         I 4800bps line  32,000  47,000  78,000  106,000  160,000 I
         I 9600bps line  44,000  59,000  90,000  118,000  172,000 I
         I19200bps line  97,000 112,000 143,000  171,000  225,000 I

          Installation fee(one time)  212,000 each line
                                       30,000 each modem

      7) Dedicated Outdial and TymDial 9.6 facility.

           Installation              10,000 yen
           Dedicated port charge      8,000 yen
           Business Line Charges at cost

      8) CPE (Customer Premise Equipment) Purchase Price

         ATC-4                               478,000 yen
         ATC-8                               584,000 yen
         Pico-Engine                       1,498,000 yen
         Micro-Engine 2      512kb         2,652,000 yen
         Micro-Engine 3     1024kb         3,536,000 yen
         Micro-Engine 4     1024kb         3,536,000 yen

      9) CPE Rental Price

         ATC-4           25,000 yen/month   100,000 yen/install
         ATC-8           30,000 yen/month   100,000 yen/install
         Pico*           60,000 yen/month   250,000 yen/install
         Micro-2*        90,000 yen/month   250,000 yen/install
         Micro-3*       115,000 yen/month   250,000 yen/install
         Micro-4*       115,000 yen/month   250,000 yen/install

         * Pico and Micro Price include node code and one
           interface code. Price for additional interface code
           is 25,000 yen/interface/month and 250,000 yen/interface/

   2. Public (Dial-up) Service.*

      1) General accounting charge              None

      2) Each NUI                               500 yen

      *Available speeds are 300-2400bps, and 9600bps.
       There is no communication surcharge for 9600bps
       public dialup.

   3. Communication charge

      1) Caller paid

         1.1 Connect charge                  1,920 yen/hour
             IDC Customers do not pay connect charges.

         1.2 Character transmission charge      45 yen/K-char
             Note step level discounts below.

      2) Reverse Charge
         2.1. Connect charge                  $11.40/hour
         2.2. Character transmission charge   $  .30/K-char

      3) Step Level (Volume) discounts for transmission

         first 10,000 K-char     $ .30  or  45 yen per K-char
         next  40,000 K-char     $ .14  or  21 yen per K-char
         next 100,000 K-char     $ .12  or  18 yen per K-char
         over 150,000 K-char     $ .10  or  15 yen per K-char

            NIS Domestic Rates Schedule  Last update: October 4, 1990

     These rates apply to domestic customers only.

     1. Subscription Charge (one time charge)
          1.  Dial up (Dedicated) Service          100,000 yen/each line
          2.  Leased line service                  140,000 yen/each line

     2. General Charge

        1. Common to all type of service
            Customer Account charge               20,000 yen/month
            Each user name                           500 yen/month

        2. Dial-up(dedicated) and leased line service only
            Dedicated port charge                  8,000 yen/month
               (Modem and line surcharge-- conform to the NIS specifics)

     3.   Communication Charge

        1. Access Charge     Dial-up (public) service only.
           300,1200bps                              300 yen/hour
           2400bps                                  450 yen/hour

        2. Character transmission Charge

           I  Kilo byte per month          peak time       off peak time  I
           I First 25,000 Kbyte           6.0 yen/Kbyte    2.0 yen/Kbyte  I
           I                                                              I
           I Next 125,000 Kbyte           4.5 yen/Kbyte    2.0 yen/Kbyte  I
           I                                                              I
           I Over 150,000 Kbyte           3.0 yen/Kbyte    2.0 yen/Kbyte  I
                                      peak time --from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m.

          Each modem                             30,000 yen
          Upgrade, Downgrade, Move-- priced at the rate NIS specifies


     1.  Dial-up (Dedicated) service only

           each 300bps modem                       5,000 yen/month
           each 1200bps modem                      6,500 yen/month
           each 2400bps modem                      7,500 yen/month

     2. Leased line service only

        I   line speed      -10km   -20km   -30km    -60km   -120km        I
        I -----------------------------------------------------------------I
        I    2400 bps line  28,000  43,000  74,000  102,000  156,000       I
        I    4800 bps line  32,000  47,000  78,000  106,000  160,000       I
        I    9600 bps line  44,000  59,000  90,000  118,000  172,000       I
 J1f0?s X%997,000 112,000 143,000  171,000  225,000       I
                                                  (yen per month)

 ------------------ OPERATIONAL/TECHNICAL INFORMATION ---------------------

     Contact: Network Control Center
     Hours of Operation: 24hrs/day, 7days/week.
     Phone: (81.3)-551-6220
     Fax  : (81.3)-551-6355
     Ontyme: NIS.NETCON



     Drop Terminal: 440620000840
     Echo Host:     44062000089901



     TYMNET STYLE "please log in:  "

 5.  TYMUSA Available: Yes, see note        IBAND: n/a, see note

     Note: IBAND does not apply as network server is not used



     City             V.21/300bps     V.22/1200bps     V.22 1200/2400bps
     -----------      -----------     ------------     -----------------
     Akita           0188-65-5735                      0188-65-5733
     Atsugi          0462-21-5331                      0462-21-0404
     Chiba           0472-27-0671                      0472-27-0601
     Fukui           0776-34-3308                      0776-35-8840
     Fukuoka         092-474-7076                      092-474-7196
     Hamamatsu       0534-56-7355                      0534-56-7231
     Hiroshima       082-241-6857                      082-243-9270
     Kagoshima       0992-22-8598                      0992-22-8954
     Kanazawa        0762-24-2351                      0762-24-2341
     Kobe            078-242-1097                      078-242-1115
     Kouriyama                                         0249-38-5396
     Kumamoto        096-355-5233                      096-354-3065
     Kyoto           075-431-6205                      075-431-6203
     Matsuyama       0899-32-2975                      0899-32-4207
     Mito            0292-24-1675                      0292-24-4213
     Morioka         0196-54-8513                      0196-54-7315
     Nagasaki        0958-28-6088                      0958-28-6077
     Nagoya          052-911-1621                      052-981-3221
     Naha (Okinawa)  0988-61-4002                      0988-61-3414
     Nogano                                            0262-34-3900
     Ohita                                             0975-38-2160
     Okayama         0862-32-6760                      0862-31-4993
     Osaka           06-271-9028      06-271-9029      06-271-6876
     Sapporo         011-281-4343                      011-281-4421
     Sendai          022-231-5741                      022-231-5355
     Shizuoka        0542-84-3393                      0542-84-3398
     Takamatsu       0878-23-0502                      0878-23-0501
     Takasaki                                          0273-23-9739
     Tokuyama                                          0834-32-0991
     Tokyo           03-555-9525      03-555-9526      03-555-9696
     Toyama          0764-41-7578                      0764-41-7769
     Tsuchiura       0298-55-6123                      0298-55-6121
     Urawa                                             048-833-9341
     Utsunomiya                                        0286-34-8251
     Yokohama        045-453-7757                      045-453-7637
     Yonago                                            0859-32-3201

     Note: For NISNET-Tymnet IVAN Installation & Implementation guide,
           please reference (INTLINFO:38)IIGUD.NIS

           For NISNET-Tymnet IVAN Service trouble report, please reference

           For detailed NIS business & operation information, please
           reference (INTLINFO:38)NIS.DOC


  Kokusai Denshin Denwa Co. Ltd(KDD)                Net. Name:  VENUS-P
  NUI Marketing & Customer Service                  DNIC:  4408
  2-2-2, Marunochi, Chi-Yoda-Ku
  Tokyo 100, Japan
  Contact:  Mr Kohichi Ukegawa                      Tel   : (81)3-347-5871
                                                    Telex : (781)22500
                                                    Ontyme: INTL.KDDMKTG

  Washington Liaison Office:

  Kokusai Denshin Denwa Company, Ltd. (KDD)
  34K, Intelsat Building
  3400 International Drive., NW
  Washington, D.C. 20008-3098
                                                   Tel   : (202)944-7900
                                                   Telex : 440205 KDD UI
                                                   Fax   : (202)362-4365
                                                   Ontyme: INTL.KDD/DC

  New York Liaison Office:

  Kokusai Denshin Denwa Company, Ltd. (KDD)
  535 Madison Avenue 33rd Floor
  New York, NY 10022
  Contact:  Mr Toshiki Ueda                        Tel   : (212)832-3550

 1.  ACCESS/SPEEDS:    Asynchronous dial-in speeds:    110-300, 1200bps
                       Asynchronous leased speeds:     110-300, 1200bps
                       Synchronous Leased speeds:      2400, 4800, 9600bps

 2.  PROTOCOLS:   X.25, Bisync, HDLC, Asynchronous terminal interface

 3.  PRICES:           ALL Prices are in Japanese Yen
                       (1$ US = 130.20 yen  7/88)

                   1: Communication Charges
                      Connect Time:                Yen 40/minute
                      Transmission:                Yen 2.4/segment

                      A. Installation charges (one time)
                         (for tie line contract)
                         Leased Line Installation  Yen   72,000. for 300 bps
                                                   Yen  102,000. for 1200-9600

                         DCE/Additional Service
                         Installation:             At cost

                      B. Monthly Basic Charge
                         1. Tie Line Contract:     Yen  21,400. for 300 bps
                                                   Yen  28,200. for 1200 bps
                                                   Yen  48,000. for 2400 bps
                                                   Yen  75,000. for 4800 bps
                                                   Yen 114,000. for 9600 bps

                            Additional Net. Name:
                            Multiple Logical Channel:
                                                   Yen  90. per logical chnl.
                            Abbreviated Dialing:   Yen  1,080 for synchronous
                                                   Yen  270. for asynchronous
                                                   Yen  620. per line

                         2. Dial-up Contract:      Yen  270. per NUI per month
                            (abbreviated dialing)

 4.  COMMENTS:     KDD's Liaison offices in New York & Washington are very
                   helpful for any prospect.

 ------------------ OPERATIONAL/TECHNICAL INFORMATION -------------------------

     Contact: KDD IDSC Tokyo (Network Control Center)
     Hours of Operation: 24hrs/365 days
     Phone:   (81)3-347-5221
     Telex:   (781)26600
     Ontyme:  INTL.KDDOPNS


 3.  TEST ADDRESS: 44082006001



         1. On modem connect.

         2. PAD prompt: .P=FA             (FA is profile ID)

         3. Login string: N-3106xxxxxx[Dcud]
                                                    ^    ^
                                    optional CUD ___|____|



     1:1, 2:1, 3:126, 4:0, 5:1, 6:1, 7:2, 8:0, 9:0, 10:0, 12:1,
     13:0, 14:0, 15:0, 16:8, 17:24, 18:0, 19:1, 20:0, 21:0, 22:0


            300bps(V.21)      1200bps(V.22)       2400bps(V.22bis)

     Tokyo (81.3)-345-0300        343-1200            344-2400

     Osaka (81.6)-944-0300        942-1211            944-2400

     Note: These are toll free numbers that can not be accessed via IDDD.

                              --- KUWAIT ---


 Ministry of Communications, KUPAC Section

 Contact, Engineering:                     Tel: 965-2408906



 3.  PRICES:       All prices are in Kuwaiti Dinars (KD)
                   (1$ US = .29 KD  7/90)

     A.  Fixed Charges:

         Speed            Dial-up Access      Leased Line Access
         300-2400 bps     150 KD              200 KD
         4800 bps         N/A                 250 KD
         9600 bps         N/A                 300 KD

     B.  International Connection Charges:

         0.050 KD /min all countries
         0.005 KD/segment all countries

     C.  Local Connection Charges:

         0.010 KD/minute
         0.003 KD/segment

 4.  COMMENTS:         Service is also provided via Bahrain.

    ------------------OPERATIONAL/TECHNICAL INFORMATION---------------

     Contact:  KUPAC Control
     Hours of Operation:  0400 - 1000 GMT
     Phone: 965-2408902/3/4
     Telex:  496-30828
     Fax: 965-2408907


 3.  TEST ADDRESS:  Contact Customer Service for Test Address



     1:1, 2:1, 3:126, 4:20, 5:2, 6:13, 7:2, 8:0, 9:0, 10:0, 12:1, 13:1,
     14:0, 15:1, 16:127, 17:24, 18:18, 19:1, 20:0, 21:0, 22:0, 80:4, 81:88)



              Modem Speed             Access Phone Number
              300  bps                      143
              1200 bps                      142
              2400 bps                      141

                           --- LUXEMBOURG ---


 Administration des P. et T.                  Net. Name:  LUXPAC
 Division des Telecommunications              DNIC: 2704
 Bureau 211
 5, rue de Hollerich
 L-2999 Luxembourg
 Contact:  Mr. M. Barnig, Mr. P. Ney          Tel. (352) 4991-710
           (for information about Luxpac)     Telex: (848)3410 ptdt lu

           Mr. Gilbert Hoscheid               Tel. (352) 4991-722
           (for subscription and tariffs)     Fax  (352) 493049
                                              Telex: (402) 60520
                                              OnTyme: INTL.LUXMKTG

           Mr. Paul Ney                       Tel: (352) 4991 732
           (engineering/technical)            Fax: (352)491221
                                              Telex: (402) 3410

           Network Supervision and Maint.     Tel: (352) 4991 742
                                              Fax: (352) 489324

 1.  ACCESS/SPEEDS:   Asynchronous dial-in speeds:  300, 1200, 1200/75,
                                                    2400 bps
                      Asynchronous leased speeds:   300, 1200, 1200/75,
                                                    2400 bps
                      Synchronous leased speeds:    2400, 4800, 9600,
                                                    19200, 48000, 64000 bps

 2.  PROTOCOLS:  X.25, X.28, X.32

 3.  PRICES:      All prices are in Luxembourg Francs (LF)

                  - Usage Charges for Traffic to the USA
                    (for both types of access: direct or via PSTN)

                    Call set-up charge        LF      0.25/call
                    Connect Time              LF      4.00/minute
                    Transmission              LF      0.20/segment

                  - Direct Access

                    a) Installation Charges

                       for X.28 direct connection  LF 5  000,00
                       for X.25 direct connection  LF 75 000,00

                    b) Monthly Charges for leased lines connection
                       (includes one modem at customer's site and
                       one logical channel for X.25 connection)

                       110-300     bps  X.28  LF  1 500.00
                       1200/75     bps  X.28  LF  2 000.00
                       1200        bps  X.28  LF  3 000.00
                       2400        bps  X.28  LF  4 500.00
                       2400        bps  X.25  LF  5 000.00
                       4800        bps  X.25  LF  7 500.00
                       9600        bps  X.25  LF 10 000.00
                       19200       bps  X.25  LF 17 500.00
                       48000       bps  X.25  LF 30 000.00
                       64000       bps  X.25  LF 35 000.00

                    c) Other Charges

                       Additional logical channel:
                       . Installation         LF    500.00
                       . Monthly charge       LF    100.00
                       . Access to Teletex
                         conversion unit      LF  1 000.00

                       . One-time charge      LF    500.00
                       . Monthly charge       LF    250.00

                  - Dial-Up Access X.28 and X.32

                    a) Installation Charges:

                        NUI                   LF  1 000.00

                    b)  Monthly Charges X.28:

                        NUI                   LF    100.00
                        300 bps               LF    200.00
                        1200 bps              LF  1 200.00
                        2400 bps              LF  2 000.00

                     c) Monthly Charges X.32:

                        NUI                   LF    100.00
                        2400 bps              LF  3 000.00


 --------------------- OPERATIONAL/TECHNICAL INFORMATION -------------------

     Hours of Operation: 24 Hours a day, 7 days a week
     Phone: 17
     Telex: (402) 60745
     Fax: (352) 492617

 3.  TEST ADDRESS: 027044800000, 027044900000  Echo NUA
                   027044800001, 027044900001  Drop NUA


     1.  On modem connect, LUXPAC replies xxx yyy zzz
         (xxx yyy zzz is the port and node number)

     2.  Type N followed by your LUXPAC NUI, and by the called
         NUA, separated by '-' :
                                 or +

     3.  LUXPAC will reply: COM


     1:0, 2:1, 3:126, 4:0, 5:1, 6:1, 7:2, 8:0, 9:0, 10:0,
     11:not defined, 12:1, 13:0, 14:0, 15:0, 16:8, 17:24, 18:42


                           Modem/Speed            Access Number
     X.28             100-300 bps/V21                 0731
                      300 bps/V21                     0733
                      1200/75 bps/V23                 0734
                      1200 bps/V22                    0735
                      2400 bps/V22bis                 0736

    X.32              2400 bps/V22bis                 0732

                            --- MALAYSIA ---


 Syarikat Telecom Malaysia Berhad (STM)
 STM Headquarters
 Jalan Raja Chulan
 50200 Kula Lumpur

 Contact:    Ms. Rafiah Ibrahim               PH: 03-2329494
                                              Telex: MA 90196 NCCPJ

 1.  ACCESS/SPEEDS:    Asynchronous  300, 1200 bps
                       Synchronous  2400, 4800, 9600 bps


 3.  PRICES:           All prices are in Malaysian Ringgit's (MR).
                       (1$ US = 2.70 MR  10/90)

                   Usage Charge
                   Connect Time:        $0.45 per minute or part thereof
                   Transmission:        $0.25 per 10 segments or part thereof

                   (For dial-up subscribers calls to the MAYPAC exchange will
                   be charged in the telephone bill).

             SPEED            LINE RENTAL/MO.       PORT RENTAL/MO.

              300             MR  35.00              MR   135.00
             1200             MR  35.00              MR   210.00
             2400             MR  70.00              MR   320.00
             4800             MR  70.00              MR   585.00
             9600             MR  70.00              MR   720.00


                   Deposit. . . . . . . . . . $500.00

                   Connection Fee:
                    300 bps . . . . . . . . . $600.00
                   1200 bps . . . . . . . . . $850.00
                   2400 bps . . . . . . . . $1,300.00
                   4800 bps . . . . . . . . $  850.00
                   9600 bps . . . . . . . . $  850.00

                   Speed of    Line Rental    Port Rental    NUI
                    Modem       per month      per month    per mo.

     Dial-In Access     300 bps   Normal Telephone    $65.00     $10.00
                       1200 bps    rental applies    $105.00     $10.00

 4.  COMMENTS:  For leased line connections, modems are included in the rental
                of lines.

 -----------------------OPERATIONAL/TECHNICAL INFORMATION-------------------



 3.  TEST ADDRESS: 50211320014510   Echo Host
                   50211320014211   Drop Terminal

      Upon modem connect . . .

     Receive: Maypac
              Terminal =
     Receive: User ID =
     Send:    User ID (Issued by Maypac)
     Receive: Password =
     Send:    Password (Issued by Maypac)
     Receive: Destination =
     Send:    Network user address (NUA) of intended destination
     Receive: Connection message


 6.  DEFAULT PAD SETTINGS: (X.3 Profile)

     1:64, 2:1, 3:2, 4:20, 5:0, 6:5, 7:2, 8:0, 9:7, 10:0, 11:X read only par.,
     12:0, 13:4, 14:7, 15:0, 16:8, 17:24, 18:18

     NOTE: The value "X" of parameter no. 11 (speed of the X.28 DTE) is set
           by the PAD when the physical circuit is established when a carriage
           return is entered at the "terminal =" by the user during the
           logon procedure. At the "terminal =" prompt the user may also
           enter the ID of the standard profile (from an ID list) most suitable
           for the terminal type and application.


     City/Territory           Modem/Speed             Access Number
     Kuala Lumpur/Federal Ter.  V.21/300               (6.03) 2328800
                                V.22/1200              (6.03) 2328855
     Penang/Pulau Pinang        V.21/300               (6.04) 375588
                                V.22/1200              (6.04) 360088
     Kota Kinabalu/Sabah        V.21/300               (6.088) 218800
                                V.22/1200              (6.088) 218855
     Petaling Jaya/Selangor     V.21/300               (6.03) 7926600
                                V.22/1200              (6.03) 7926655
     Ipoh/Perak                 V.21/300               (6.05) 548533
                                V.22/1200              (6.05) 548444
     Kuantan/Pahang             V.21/300               (6.09) 508800
                                V.22/1200              (6.09) 508855
     Johore Bharu/Johor         V.21/300               (6.07) 248800
                                V.22/1200              (6.07) 248855
     Kuching/Sarawak            V.21/300               (6.082) 418800
                                V.22/1200              (6.082) 418855
     Kota Bharu/Kelantan        V.21/300               (6.09) 748800
                                V.22/1200              (6.09) 748855
     Malacca/Melaka             V.21/300               (6.06) 238800
                                V.22/1200              (6.06) 238855
     Alor Star/Kedah            V.21/300               (6.04) 715544
                                V.22/1200              (6.04) 716644
     Kuala Terengganu/          V.21/300               (6.09) 638800
     Terengganu                 V.22/1200              (6.09) 638855
     Miri/Sarawak               V.21/300               (6.085) 410011
                                V.22/1200              (6.085) 410055
     Sandakan/Sabah             V.21/300               (6.089) 273300
                                V.22/1200              (6.089) 273355

                            --- MEXICO ---


 (-4h GMT)                             Last Update:  October 15, 1990

 Secretaria de Comunicaciones y Transportes  Net. Name: TELEPAC
 Eje Lazaro Cardenas No. 567                 DNIC:  3340
 03020 Mexico, D.F. Mexico
 Contact:  Jesus A. Ramirez Cordero          (52.5) 530-2099
                                             Telex: (383) 170932
                                             OnTyme: INTL.SCTMKTG

 1.  ACCESS/SPEEDS: Public Dial-in :  110-300, 1200 bps
                    Leased line: 2400, 4800, 9600 bps


 3.  PRICES:  All prices are in U.S. dollars.
             All calls from Mexico should be sent reverse charged
             and billed in the U.S.

                   Subscription Charge:    $ 51.62 subscription
                                           $ 96.33 port usage dedicated
                                           $ 24.08 port usage non dedicated
                                           $17.20  rent for ID (NUI,monthly)

                   These charges are one time charges and cover the
                   subscription to Telepac.  The NUI is a monthly charge.

                   Domestic Usage:         $240.00 monthly rent for dedicated
                   (Intra Mexico)                  line
                                           $   4.64 per hour
                                           $   0.79 per kilosegment

                   Traffic to the US:      $  6.50 per hour
                   Transmission:           $  5.00/kilosegment (reverse chg.)
                   Telephone Access Charge:   None

                   Telepac's customer service number is 905-530-2099.
                   Calls to Tymnet from Mexico will be reverse charged

                   Tymnet can provide a NUI for access from Mexico.  Our
                   agent in Mexico is the best source of aid and information
                   for communications from Mexico.  For detailed information
                   regarding the Tymnet NUI and Mexican dial-up access
                   locations read ontyme file, "*** INTL.MEXICO", or consult
                   your Tymnet Sales Representative.

       Tymnet Agent:
        Ing. Alejandro Acosta                        (525) 523-9421/543-0524
        Sistemas Ciberneticos, S.A.              OnTyme:  INTL.MEXICO/SICISA
        Beistegui No. 109 6 Piso
        Mexico City, Mexico

 ------------------------OPERATIONAL/TECHNICAL INFORMATION---------------





     Dial access number, (see list below).  Upon modem connect. . .

        Receive:   CONNECT 1200
                   905 401W


        Receive:   @

        Send:      "ID/TYMNET"

        Receive:   PASSWORD=

        Send:      PASSWORD"030537" (password will not be echoed on screen)

        Receive:   @

        Send:      "C031069

        Receive:   3106 9 CONNECTED

                   tymnet:  please log in:

        Send:      "host username;password)"





     City/Territory             Modem/Speed          Access Number
       ACAPULCO                  300 bps           (748) 2-33-92  *
                                 300 bps                 2-12-48  *
                                                         3-70-41  %%x
                                 1200 bps                3-61-17
                                 1200 bps                3-70-15
                                 1200 bps                3-70-67  **

       AGUASCALIENTES            1200 bps          (491) 5-12-13  **
                                  300 bps                5-12-21  *
                                  300 bps                5-12-76
                                 2400 bps                5-12-52
                                 2400 bps                5-16-94

       COATZACOALCOS              300 bps          (921) 2-15-20
                                  300 bps                2-15-52
                                  1200 bps               2-15-18
                                  1200 bps               2-15-16

        CUERNAVACA                1200 bps         (73) 12-86-02
                                   300 bps              12-83-03
                                  1200 bps              12-86-01
                                  1200 bps              12-86-00

        CHIHUAHUA                  300 bps         (14) 16-73-30
                                   300 bps              16-72-20
                                   300 bps              16-74-75
                                  1200 bps              16-75-75
                                  1200 bps              16-75-95
                                  1200 bps              16-77-47

       DURANGO                    1200 bps        (181)  1-28-51
                                  1200 bps               1-28-52
                                                         1-28-58  **
                                  1200 bps               1-28-60
                                   300 bps               1-28-61
                                   300 bps               1-28-76
                                  1200 bps               1-28-85

       GUADALAJARA                 300 bps        (36)  26-55-68
                                   300 bps              26-56-02
                                   300 bps              26-55-80
                                   300 bps              26-55-86
                                  1200 bps              26-56-25
                                  1200 bps              26-56-51
                                  1200 bps              26-56-38
                                  1200 bps              26-56-67
                                  1200 bps              26-58-36
                                  1200 bps              26-57-76
                                  1200 bps              26-50-64
                                  1200 bps              26-07-82

       HERMOSILLO                  300 bps        (621)  2-30-53
                                                         2-35-47  **
                                  1200 bps               2-39-60
                                                         2-74-88  **

       LEON                        300 bps         (471) 4-81-89
                                  1200 bps               4-86-13
                                                         4-87-60  **
                                                         4-81-82  *

       MAZATLAN                                    (678) 2-03-77  *
                                                         2-09-31  *
                                                         2-04-87  *
                                                         2-05-86  *
                                  1200 bps               2-01-29

       MERIDA                                     (99)  24-41-55
                                   300 bps              24-42-90
                                  1200 bps              24-41-02
                                  1200 bps              24-48-19
                                  1200 bps              24-48-56
                                  1200 bps              24-44-19

       MEXICALI                                    (65) 53-63-01  **
                                   300 bps              53-63-04  **
                                  1200 bps              53-63-17

       MEXICO CITY                1200 bps        (905) 590-8888

       MONTERREY                  1200 bps         (83) 55-47-53
                                  1200 bps              55-61-03
                                   300 bps              55-45-46
                                   300 bps              55-46-44
                                   300                  55-46-45
                                   300 bps              55-41-75

       OAXACA                     1200 bps        (951)  6-99-89
                                   300 bps              6-99-75
                                  1200 bps              6-99-00

       PUEBLA                     1200 bps          22 40-50-11
                                                       40-53-34  *
                                   300 bps             40-53-00
                                  1200 bps             40-54-91
                                   300 bps             40-56-28
                                  1200 bps             40-50-75

       QUERETARO                  1200 bps      (463)   4-22-23
                                   300 bps              4-04-31  **
                                                        4-00-06  **
                                   1200 bps             4-02-77

       SALTILLO                    1200 bps      (841)  4-54-88
                                   1200 bps             4-55-39
                                    300 bps             4-56-45  **
                                                        4-53-62  **

        TAMPICO                                   (12) 15-77-90  *
                                                       15-76-10  **
                                                       15-77-28  **
                                   1200 bps            15-71-90
                                                       15-71-99  **

        TOLUCA                                   (721)  6-53-00  **
                                                        6-53-30  **
                                                        6-53-52  **
                                                        6-53-18  **
                                   1200 bps             6-52-07

        TORREON                    1200 bps      (17)  16-50-40
                                                       16-50-30  **
                                                       16-50-82  **
                                   1200 bps            16-51-86
                                   1200 bps            16-50-92

        VERACRUZ                                 (29)  31-40-33
                                   1200 bps            31-42-83
                                                       31-55-11  **
                                                       31-56-36  **
                                                       31-57-61  **
                                                       31-58-86  **

        VILLAHERMOSA               300 bps       (931)  3-14-02  **
                                                        3-14-55  **
                                                        3-15-69  **
                                  1200 bps              3-15-10
                                                        3-15-03  *

  ** DA%O L.P.

                            --- NETHERLANDS ---


 BT TYMNET                                  Network Name:  BT TYMNET
 K.P. Van Der Mandelelaan 78
 3062 MB Rotterdam
 The Netherlands

 Contact:  Sales and Marketing              Telephone: (31.10)452 3866
                                           Fax: (31.10)453 2590

 1.  ACCESS/SPEEDS:  Async dial-in speeds: 300-9600 bps
                     Async leased speeds: 300-9600 bps
                     Sync. leased speeds: 4800-14400 bps
                     Higher speeds available upon request

 2.  PROTOCOLS:  Async (X.28), X.25, IBM 3270 BSC, 3270 SNA/SDLC, SDLC,
                 RJE/HASP, other services available upon request.

 3.  PRICES: All prices are in U.S. Dollars.  Billing in local currency
             is available.

     Dial-up Async (X.28) Service:

     The following hourly rates ($/hour) apply depending on the destination
     of the call from the GNS public async port in the Netherlands.  There
     are no data volume charges:

    FROM:        |   TO:
                 |   EUR-I      EUR-II     USA    JAPAN   PACIFIC
    BT TYMNET    |
    Netherland s |   $8.00      $10.00     $18.00 $24.00  $24.00
    (EUR-I)      |

    EUR-I:    France, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Germany, Belgium
              Denmark, Switzerland
    EUR-II:   Italy, Sweden
    PACIFIC:  Austrlia

    NOTE:  Minimum session charge is 2.5 minutes



 ---------------------OPERATIONAL/TECHNICAL INFORMATION-------------------

     Contact:  Customer Support
     Hours of Operation:  8:30am - 6:30pm local/M-F
     Telephone: (31.10)452 3866
     Fax: (33.10)453 2590
     After hours contact the 24 Customer Support Center in Vienna, Virginia
     at (703) 442-0145

                                                 Username HELP

 3.  TEST ADDRESS: 3106000715


    Upon modem connect. . .

    Receive:  Please type your terminal identifier
              (NOTE:  String of characters may appear at speeds higher
              than 300 bps)
    Send:     "a"
    Receive:  Please log in:
    Send:     TYMNET username (NUI)
    Receive:  Password:
    Send:     Your password




    City/Territory      Modem/Speed               Access Number
    Alkmaar             300-9600 MNP              (011.31.72) 155190
    Amsterdam           300-9600 MNP              (011.31.20) 6610094
    Eindhoven           300-9600 MNP              (011.31.4902)45530
    The Hague           1200                      (011.31.70) 3814641
                        300-2400 MNP              (011.31.70) 3475032
                        4800-9600 MNP             (011.31.70) 3818448
    Rotterdam           300-9600 MNP              (011.31.10) 4532002

    NOTE:  Local X.25 gateway to PTT Datanet-1 service

           NUA: international:  2041170495
                national:          1170495


     1.  TYMUSA Gateway Host Number: 5393

     2.  Dialup Node(s): 3462

     3.  Rate: $15.00/hour and $0.80/Kchar

     4.  Dialup Locations and Numbers:

         (011.31.72) 155190  3-2400 MNP

         (011.31.20) 6610094 300/1200/1200/75/2400/9600 MNP

         (011.31.4902)45530  3-12-2400 V.21/22/bis

         The Hague
         (011.31.70) 3814641  1200
         (011.31.70) 3475032  300-2400 MNP
         (011.31.70) 3818448  4800/9600 MNP

         (011.31.10) 4532002 300/1200/1200-75/2400/9600 MNP

     5.  Trouble Reporting Center:

         Support (local)
         Phone: (011.31) 703820044
         Hours of Operation: M-F 8am - 5pm local time
         Contact: Jean Van Waterschoot (Customer Support)

         Support (Regional)
         Phone: (011.33.1)49112121
         Hours of Operation: M-F 9:00am - 5:30pm Paris, France
         Contact: Trouble Reporting Center


 PTT Telecom BV                               Net. Name: DATANET-1
 Telematics Systems and Services              DNIC: 2041
 P.O. Box 30150
 2500 GD's-Gravenhage
 The Netherlands
 Contact:  Telematics Services                Tel. (31.70) 43.86.11
           Mr. Peter Heuseveldt               Tel. (31.70) 43.61.77
                                              Fax  (31.70) 43.76.05
                                                   (31.70) 43.75.67
                                              Telex: (844) 30515 or 31111
                                              OnTyme: INTL.DCTDATA

 1.  ACCESS/SPEEDS:   Asynchronous dial-up 300, 1200, 1200/75 and 2400 bps
                      Synchronous leased lines: 2400, 4800, 9600, 48000 bps

 2.  PROTOCOLS:        X.25, X.28, X.75
                       Asynchronous terminal access.
                       MNP protocol is supported with async speeds of 1200
                       and 2400 bit/s.

 3.  PRICES:           All prices are in Dutch Florins (DFL).
                       (1$ US = 2.08 DFL  7/88)

                   1. Permanent X.25 Connection

                      a) X.25 Single Connection

                         - Installation Charge

                         2400 bps  (one logical channel)  DFL  500.00
                         2400 bps                         DFL  500.00
                         4800 bps                         DFL  500.00
                         9600 bps                         DFL  500.00
                        48000 bps                         DFL 2000.00
                        64000 bps                         DFL 2000.00

                         - Monthly Subscription

                         2400 bps  (one logical channel)  DFL  235.00
                         2400 bps                         DFL  375.00
                         4800 bps                         DFL  575.00
                         9600 bps                         DFL  750.00
                        48000 bps                         DFL 2000.00
                        64000 bps                         DFL 2000.00

                         Extra logical channels for       DFL    5.00
                         incoming and outgoing calls

                      b) X.25 Multiple Port Connection

                                      Installation        Monthly
                                         Charge         Subscription

                         2400 bps     DFL 1500,00         DFL 1100.00
                         4800 bps     DFL 1500,00         DFL 1350.00
                         9600 bps     DFL 1500,00         DFL 1550.00

                         Per extra pair of modems         DFL  175.00

                      c) Traffic Charges to the USA

                         Connect Time  -  per minute      DFL    0.25
                         Transmission  -  per segment     DFL    0.0125
                         Call set-up   -  per call        DFL    0.06

                   2. PAD Connection

                      a) Monthly subscription per NUI     DFL   30.00

                      b) Traffic Charges to the USA

                         Connect Time  -  per minute      DFL    0.25
                         Transmission  -  per segment     DFL    0.015
                         Call set-up   -  per call        DFL    0.06

                      c) Telephone Charges

                         DFL  0.15 per 5 minutes.

                         Telephone charges are billed separately.

     Service Lead Times:  One week delay to obtain an NUI.

 4.  COMMENTS:        PAD Connection:

                      It is possible to communicate via the PAD in 2 ways:

                      - identified, this means that you need a PTT
                        identifier and a password ;
                      - unidentified, you use no threshold access for which
                        no identifier or password is required.

                      The communication costs are charged to the Host and
                      the user does not need a subscription to the PAD,
                      a form of an electronic answer number is created for
                      the users.

 --------------- OPERATIONAL/TECHNICAL INFORMATION-------------------

     Contact: PTT - Datacommunications
     Hours of Operation: 24 Hours/7 Days
     Phone: (31) 2159 36604
     Telex: (844) 43198 DACOM NL
     Fax:   (31) 2159 17393


     Echo: 2041900



     1.  On modem connect you will recieve the msg: TER

     2.  Login string: A;1;;;03106xxxxxx[P|DCUD]
                                                      ^      ^
                                       optional CUD __|______|

 5.  TYMUSA AVAILABLE: Yes (Please contact your sales representative
                       for additional information and access numbers)


     1:1, 2:1, 3:2, 4:0, 5:0, 6:5, 7:21, 8:0, 9:0, 10:0, 11:x
     12:1, 13:0, 14:0, 15:1, 16:127, 17:24, 18:18, 19:0, 20:0
     21:0, 22:0

     PAD Profiles:

     Interactive 1
     PROF 10 = 1:1, 2:1, 3:2, 4:0, 5:0, 6:5, 7:21, 8:0, 9:0, 10:0,
               11:x, 12:1, 13:6, 14:0, 15:1, 16:127, 17:24, 18:18,
               19:2, 20:0, 21:0, 22:0

     Transparent/File Transfer/Block Mode
     PROF 91 = 1:0, 2:0, 3:0, 4:20, 5:0, 6:0, 7:2, 8:0, 9:0, 10:0,
               11:x, 12:0, 13:0, 14:0, 15:0, 16:127, 17:24, 18:0,
               19:1, 20:0, 21:0, 22:0


      City/Territory    V.21/300    V.23/1200/75     V.22/1200 and 2400 MNP
      REGION 1

      ALKMAAR    (072)   624814        624814          624814
      AMERSFOORT (033)   620492        620492          620492
      AMSTERDAM  (020)   460031        460031          460031
      of         (020)  6680531        6680531         6680531
      HAARLEM    (023)   358324        272134          276284
      LELYSTAD (03200)    62040        62040           62040
      UTRECHT    (030)   310032        340414          321114

      REGION 2

      ARNHEM     (085)   432778        432778          432778
      DEVENTER (05700)    42011        42011           42011
      EMMEN    (05910)    42600        42600           42600
      GRONINGEN  (050)   143666        143555          143777
      HENGELO    (074)   438355        438555          438255
      LEEUWARDEN (058)   128986        129188          129382
      MAASTRICHT (043)   434900        434020          435700
      NIJMEGEN   (080)   600101        600015          600204
      VENLO      (077)   544411        544411          544411
      ZWOLLE     (038)   221133        221133          221133

      REGION 3

      BREDA      (076)   227032        227040          226525
      DORDRECHT  (078)   310811        310811          310811
      EINDHOVEN  (040)   456345        440085          454585
      GOES     (01100)    31006        31006           31006
      HERTOGENB. (073)   890840        890840          890840
      ROTTERDAM  (010)  4140877        4334211         4045377
      TILBURG    (013)   365440        365440          365440
      ZOETERMEER (079)   214092        212001          521547

                            --- NEW ZEALAND ---


                                              Last Update: June 29, 1990

                                              Net. Name: PACNET
 Telecom Networks and International Ltd.      DNIC: 5301
 Telecom Networks House
 Switched Data Network Section
 68-86 Jervois Quay
 P.O. Box 1092
 Wellington 1, New Zealand
 Contact:  Alan Townsend                      Phone: (64.4)496 6132
                                              Telex: 791 31688
                                              Fax: (64.4) 496 6125

 1.  ACCESS/SPEEDS:      Dial-up: 300, 1200, 1200/75, 2400
                     Leased Line: 300 and 1200 bps asynchronous
                     Leased Line: 2400, 4800 and 9600 bps synchronous

 2.  PROTOCOLS:        X.25, Asynchronous terminal interface

 3.  PRICES:           All prices are in New Zealand Dollars. (NZ Dls)
                       (1$ US = 1.7 NZ Dls. 7/90)

   Traffic Charges to the USA:
                                Time:   NZ 12.00/hr
                              Volume:   NZ 12.00/ksegment

                Minimum Charge:
                 For successful call:   6 segments
               For unsuccessful call:   2 segments

               Dial-Up Service:
                    Registration Fee:   NZ 18.18 (one time)
                      Monthly Charge:   NZ  5.00/NUI

           Leased Line Service:

             Async Connections:
                           Installation Charge   Monthly Charge
         300bps                NZ 240.00            NZ 190.00
         1200bps               NZ 280.00            NZ 255.00

       Synchronous Connections:
                           Installation Charge   Monthly Charge
         2400bps               NZ 280.00            NZ 160.00
         4800bps               NZ 280.00            NZ 170.00
         9600bps               NZ 280.00            NZ 190.00
          48kbps              NZ 1680.00            NZ 660.00


                 /                                    /
                 /          NIA073 / File 05          /
                 /  Report On Interexchange Carriers  /
                 /        Compiled By The FCC         /
                 /                                    /

    The following list outlines all Long Distance carriers purchasing
    switched access as of March, 1991.  The list also outlines the type
    of access purchased.  With feature group A and B, the caller gains
    access to the carrier's facilities by first dialing a remote access
    site.  Feature group D indicates equal access.

           SERVICE                             ACCESS TYPE
10 Plus Teleservices                                   D
Abcom                                            A
ACC Long Distance Corporation                    A  B  D
Access Long Distance                                B  D
Access Plus                                      A     D
Action Telecommunications Co.                    A  B  D
Advanced Business Telephone, Inc.                A  B  D
Advanced Communication Technologies, Inc.        A  B  D
Advanced Communications Systems, Inc.            A  B  D
Advanced MKG, SVCS., dba Dial Anywhere           A  B  D
Aero Mayflower                                   A
Afford-A-Call                                    A  B  D
Allnet Comm. Svs., Inc.  (LDX, Lexitel)          A  B  D
Altcom Corp.                                     A
Alternate Communication Technology, Inc.            B  D
A.B.E. of Alabama, Inc., dba Econoline           A
Americall Corporation (Calif.)                   A  B  D
Americall Systems of Louisville                  A  B  D
American Long Distance Co.                             D
American Long Distance Exchange, Inc.                  D
American Long Lines                              A  B  D
American National Telcom                         A  B  D
American Network Exchange, Inc.                  A  B  D
American Sharecom, Inc                           A  B  D
American Telco, Inc.                             A  B  D
American Telco Network Services, Inc.            A  B  D
American Telecommunications Holdings, Ltd.          B  D
American Telesystems                             A  B  D
Amerisystems, Inc                                   B  D
Amvox                                                  D
Ascom Autelca                                    A
Associated Telenet, Inc.                         A  B  D
Associated Terminating Network                   A
ATC                                              A  B  D
Atlantic Connection, Ltd.                        A
ATX Telecommunications Services                  A  B  D
AT&T Communications                              A     D
Austin Bestline                                  A  B  D
Automated Communications, Inc.                      B  D
Bay Communications                               A  B  D
Bittel Telecommunications Corp.                  A  B  D
Biz Tel Long Distance Telephone Co.                    D
Biztel, Ltd.                                     A  B
Bi-State Telephone Co.                           A
Budget Telephone                                 A
Burlington Telephone Company                     A  B  D
Business Communications Network, Inc.                  D
Business Telecom, Inc.                           A  B  D
Cable & Wireless Communications, Inc. (TDX)      A  B  D
Call America                                     A  B  D
Call America Business Comm. Corp.                A  B  D
Call America of Riverside                        A  B  D
Call America/Palm Desert                         A  B
Call Savers of Fresno                               B  D
Call Technology Corp. of Philadelphia               B  D
Call USA Corp.                                      B  D
Call-USA, Inc.                                      B
Cambridge Communications                         A  B  D
Cam-Net, Inc.                                    A  B  D
Capital Network System, Inc.                     A  B  D
Capital Telecommunications, Inc.                 A  B  D
Card*Tel                                         A
Centel Net                                             D
Central Lines                                    A
Central New York Talk-Transit                    A  B
Central Teleohone Systems, Inc.                  A  B
Central Texas Long Distance, Inc.                A  B  D
Century Area Long Lines                          A
Century Network, Inc.                            A  B
Chadwick Telephone                               A  B  D
Charter Corporation dba TRI-J                    A  B  D
Charter Network                                  A  B  D
Chautauqua Tele-Saver                            A
Checkrite                                        A  B
Chicago Communications Services, Inc.            A
Cincinnati Bell Long Distance, Inc.                 B  D
Citynet Communications, Inc.                        B  D
Cleartel Communications                             B  D
Clifton Phone Systems                                  D
Coachella Valley Communications                     B  D
Coastal Telephone Company                           B  D
Colorado River Communications                       B  D
Com Systems Network Services                     A  B  D
Comantel                                         A
Commander Systems, Inc.                          A
Communication Cable Laying Co., Inc.             A  B  D
The Communigroup of N. Alabama                   A
Communique Telecommunications, Inc.                    D
Compu-Tel, Inc.                                  A
Com-Mar, Inc.                                    A
Conagra                                          A
Conifer Communications, Ltd.                     A  B
Conquest Communications Corporation                 B
Conquest Long Distance Corp.                     A  B  D
Conquest Operator Services Corp.                    B  D
Consolidated Network, Inc.                          B  D
Consortium Communications Inc.                   A
Contact America                                  A  B  D
Contel ASC                                       A  B
Continental Switching Corporation                      D
Continental Telecommunications Group                   D
Cont'l States Corp. dba TMC of Orlando                 D
Coshocton L.D.S.                                 A  B
CTI Telecommunications, Inc.                     A  B  D
Custom Telecom. Network of Arizona                     D
Cypress Telecommunications Corp. (CYTEL)         A  B  D
Dash Long Distance Service, Inc.                 A  B  D
Data General Network Services                    A
Datanet Communications, Inc.                     A  B  D
Decco                                            A
Delta Communications, Inc.                       A  B  D
Dial America, Inc.                               A  B
Dial-Net, Inc.                                   A  B  D
Digital Network, Inc.                            A  B  D
Digital Signal, Inc.                             A
Direct Communications, Inc.                      A  B  D
Discount Communications Services                 A  B
Dunset                                           A
E & K Systems, Inc.                              A
Eastern Microwave                                      D
Eastern Telelogic Corporation                    A     D
Eastern Telephone Systems, Inc.                  A  B  D
Econo-Call, Inc.                                 A  B
Econo-Line (Harrison, AR)                           B
Econo. Call Long Distance Services               A  B  D
Econ-A-Call, Inc. of Heys                        A  B  D
EDS                                              A  B
Equicom Communications, Inc.                        B  D
Escondido Telephone Company                         B  D
Execuline of Sacramento                          A  B  D
Execuline of the Northwest                       A  B  D
Execulines, Inc.                                 A
FEB Corporation                                        D
Fiberfone of Florida, Inc.                       A  B
Fibernet Communications Corporation                 B  D
First Communications, Inc. (FDR)                    B
First Data Resources, Inc. (FST)                    B  D
First Fone of Amarillo                              B  D
First Fone Long Distance                            B  D
First Interstate Service Co.                        B
First Phone of New England                       A  B  D
Flat Rate Communications                            B
Flex Communications System                       A  B  D
Fone America, Inc.                               A  B  D
Fones West                                       A
Fox Communications Corp.                            B  D
Garden State Long Distance Telephone             A     D
General Communication, Inc.                      A  B  D
GEO Communications, Inc.                         A
Glen Falls Long Distance Service                 A  B
GMW Company                                      A  B  D
Hart Communications Co.                                D
Hi-Plains NTS Communications                        B
Icon Communications, Corporation                 A  B  D
Independant Long Distance                              D
Indianapolis Telephone Corp., Inc.               A
Innovative Communications, Inc.                     B  D
Intelco                                          A  B  D
Inter Tel                                        A
International Pacific                               B  D
Internationsl Telecharge, Inc.                   A  B  D
Internet Datacom, Inc.                           A
Interstate Telephone Company                     A  B
Iowa Network Services, Inc.                         B  D
ITC Networks                                     A  B  D
J-Net Communications, Inc.                       A  B  D
Kawahawi Company                                 A
KCC Communications                                     D
Ken-Tel Service, Inc.                            A  B  D
Kentucky Telephone Corp.                         A  B  D
Key System Corporation                           A
Keystone Telecommunications, Inc.                A  B  D
Lake States Communications, Inc.                       D
Lassman - Weber Communications, Inc.             A  B  D
LDB Corporation                                  A  B  D
LDDS                                             A  B  D
LDS of Alexandria                                   B  D
LDS of Baton Rouge                               A  B  D
LDS of Monroe                                    A  B  D
LDS of Shreveport                                A  B  D
LDS of Tulsa                                     A  B  D
Lintel Sys. dba Lincoln Telephone L.D.              B  D
Litel Telecommunications (Lightcall)             A  B  D
Lone Star Telecom                                      D
Long Distance Communications                        B  D
Long Distance Discount, Inc.                     A  B  D
Long Distance for Less                           A  B  D
Long Distance Management                         A  B  D
Long Distandce Network, Inc.                     A     D
Long Distance Ohio, Inc.                         A  B
Long Distance Savers                             A  B  D
Long Distance Service, Inc.                      A  B  D
Long Distance Specialties Telephone Co.          A  B  D
Long Distance Telephone Savers, Inc.             A  B  D
Long Line Inc.                                   A
LTS, Inc.                                        A  B  D
Lufkin Tele. dba Star Tel of Lufkin              A  B
Manitowoc Long Distance Service                  A     D
Marinette-Menominee LDS                          A  B  D
Marshall LDDS                                    A
MCI                                              A  B  D
Metromedia/ITT                                   A  B  D
Metro Telephone, Inc.                               B  D
Metronet Long Distance Communications            A     D
Mid Atlantic Telecom                             A  B  D
Mid Atlantic Telephone Company                   A
Midamerican Comm. (Midamerican L.D.)             A  B  D
Midco Communications                             A  B  D
Midcom, Inc.                                        B
Midcom of Arizona, Inc.                          A     D
Midco-Tel of Aberdeen                            A
Midwest Telephone Service, Inc.                  A  B  D
Mid-Tel L.D., Inc., of Williston                 A  B
Minntelco                                        A
Mobile Comms., Corp. of America                  A
Montana Long Distance, Inc.                         B  D
MSI Communications, Inc.                            B
Nacogdoches Telecommunications, Inc.             A  B  D
NACT dba Network Telemanagement Services         A  B
NAPA Valley Telecom Services                     A  B  D
National Brands, Inc.                               B  D
National Network Corp.                              B
National Technical Association dbs NTA              B  D
National Telecommunications, Inc.                A  B  D
National Telephone Communications, Inc.          A  B
National Telephone Exchange (N.Y.)               A  B  D
National Telephone Exchange (PA)                 A  B
National Telephone Exchange (TX)                 A  B  D
National Teleservice                             A  B  D
National Tele-Sav, Inc.                             B  D
NCHE Telecommunications Network, Inc.                  D
Net Express Communications, Inc.                       D
Netech Communications                            A  B  D
Network 1, Inc.                                  A  B
Network Communications, Inc.                     A
Network Operator Services, Inc.                     B  D
Network Services, Ltd.                              B  D
Network Telecommunications                       A  B  D
Network Telephone Services, Inc.                       D
Nickle Fone                                      A  B  D
Norlight                                         A
North American Communications, Inc.              A  B  D
Northern Arizona Communications Corp.               B  D
Northern Michigan L.D.S.                         A  B
Northern Wisconsin L.D.S.                              D
Northland Telephone Systems, Ltd.                A  B  D
Northwest Network Communications, Inc.           A  B  D
Northwest Telecom, Ltd.                          A  B  D
Northwest Telecomm, Co.                          A  B  D
Novah of Michigan                                A
NTS Communications, Inc.                         A  B  D
NY Com, Inc.                                        B  D
One Call Communications, Inc.                    A  B  D
One-2-One Communications                         A  B  D
Operator Service Company                               D
Pace Long Distance Service                       A  B  D
Page America Communications, Inc.                A
Panda Communications                             A
Pass Word, Inc.                                     B
Payline Systems, Inc.                               B  D
Peninsula Long Distance Service, Inc.            A     D
Penny Fone                                       A  B
Petroleum Communications                         A
Phoenix Communications Group, Inc.               A  B  D
Phoenix Network Corporation                         B  D
Phone America of Carolina                        A  B  D
Phone Base Systems, Inc.                               D
Phone One                                        A  B  D
Phonelink, Inc.                                  A
Phonenet, Inc.                                   A
Phonetel Technologies, Inc.                            D
Pilgrim Telephone, Inc.                                D
Prestwood Communications Co.                     A
Professional Networks Management, Inc.           A  B  D
Pro-Com, Inc.                                    A  B  D
PSA, Inc.                                        A  B
Qwest Microwave Corp.                               B
Radius Telecommunications                        A
RCI Long Distance                                A  B  D
Resurgens Telecommunications                           D
Roamer Services, Inc.                                  D
Rochester Telecomm Systems                       A
San Marcos Long Distance, Inc.                      B
Schneider Communications                         A  B  D
Science Dynamics Corporation                           D
Securitex dba Tylernet Long Distance             A  B  D
Sharecom                                         A     D
Shared Use Network, Ltd.                         A  B  D
Shared Use Network Service, Inc.                 A  B  D
Shenandoah Long Distance Company                    B
Sierra Telecommunications, Inc.                     B  D
SM Long Distance                                    B  D
South Bay Communications, Inc.                   A  B
South Tel                                        A  B  D
Southern Interexchange Services, Inc.               B
Southnet Services, Inc.                                D
Southwest Communications                            B
Spectratel                                       A
St. Thomas & San Juan Telco, Inc.                A
Star Tel                                         A  B
Star Tel of Abilene                              A  B  D
Star Tel of Victoria                             A  B  D
Star Tel Transmission Co., Inc.                  A  B  D
Starline, Inc.                                      B  D
Startec, Inc.                                          D
St. Joe Communications, Inc.                           D
Sun Coast Comm Inc.                              A
Sunshine Telephone, Inc.                         A  B  D
Superior Telecom                                 A  B  D
Swiff Train Communications                       A  B
Switchboard of Oklahoma City                     A  B
Tacoma Telephone Exchange                        A
Taconic Long Distance Service, Corp.             A  B  D
TCS Network Services                             A
TEC West                                         A
Tel America, Inc.                                A  B  D
Tel Com International, Inc.                         B  D
Tel Systems Management                           A
Telamarketing Communications, Inc.               A  B  D
Telamarketing Communications of America                D
Telamarketing Communications of Arkansas         A  B  D
Telamarketing Communications of Bakersfield      A  B
Telamarketing Communications of Baton Rouge            D
Telamarketing Communications of Birmingham       A     D
Telamarketing Communications of Columbus         A
Telamarketing Communications of El Paso          A     D
Telamarketing Communications of Evansville       A  B  D
Telamarketing Communications of Fresno           A  B
Telamarketing Communications of Lafayette        A     D
Telamarketing Communications of Louisville       A     D
Telamarketing Communications of Milwaukee        A  B  D
Telamarketing Communications of Nashville        A
Telamarketing Communications of NW Indiana       A
Telamarketing Communications of Oklahoma         A     D
Telamarketing Communications of Omaha            A  B  D
Telamarketing Communications of Piedmont         A  B  D
Telamarketing Communications of Providence       A  B  D
Telamarketing Communications of Raleigh          A
Telamarketing Communications of San Luis Obispo  A  B
Telamarketing Communications of Savannah         A
Telamarketing Communications of Stockton         A  B
Telamarketing Communications of Tri-States       A  B  D
Telamarketing Communications of Tulsa            A     D
Telco of Baton Rouge, Inc.                       A  B  D
Tele Tech, Inc.                                  A  B  D
Telecolumbus, USA dba Worldcom                         D
Telecommunications Services Corporation          A  B  D
Telecommunications Consultants, Inc.                B  D
Telecon Communications Corporation                  B
Teledial America                                 A  B  D
Telefind Corporation                                B
Telemanagement Consultants Corporation           A  B  D
Telenational Communications                      A  B  D
Telephone Assoc., dba Fergus Falls LD               B
Telephone Assoc., dba Thief River Falls LD             D
Telephone Assoc. Long Distance SVCS.             A  B  D
Telephone Communications Corporation             A     D
Telephone Connections, Inc.                         B
Telephone Express                                A  B  D
Telephone Express, Inc.                          A
Telephone Systems                                A  B
Teleport Communications                          A
Telepro dba Blue Ridge Telephone Company         A  B  D
Telesavers, Inc.                                 A
Telescan, Inc.                                      B  D
Telesphere Network, Inc.                         A  B  D
Telesphere of Houston                               B
Tele$aver of New Mexico                             B  D
Tele-Fibernet Corporation                        A  B  D
Tele-Sys, Inc.                                   A  B  D
Teltrust Network Service                         A  B  D
Telvue Corporation                                  B  D
Tel-America Network Services, Inc.               A  B  D
Tel-A-Save Communications Systems, Ltd.          A  B
Tel-Central of Jefferson City                    A  B  D
Tel-Com, Inc                                     A  B
Tel-Share                                        A  B  D
Tel-Toll dba Econ-O Dial of Bishop               A  B
Texas Long Distance Conroe                       A  B
Texustel, Inc.                                   A  B  D
The Communigroup                                 A  B  D
The Offshore Telephone Company                   A  B
The Pay Telephone Company                           B  D
The Switchboard                                  A  B
Things, Inc.                                     A  B  D
Thrifty Telephone Ex. dba Ohio Digital Access       B  D
TK Communications, Inc.                          A  B  D
TMC of Lexington                                 A  B  D
TMC of San Diego                                 A  B  D
TMC of Southern Kentucky                            B  D
TMC of Southwest Florida                         A  B  D
TMC of Washington, DC                            A  B  D
Total-Tel USA, Inc.                              A  B  D
Touch America, Inc.                                 B  D
Touch-1                                                D
To-Tel Comm Sys                                  A
Transamerica Telecommunications, Inc.            A  B  D
Transtel Comm Express Tel                        A
Trans-Net, Inc.                                  A  B  D
Tri-Tel Communications                           A  B  D
Tri-Tel Comunications Systems                    A  B
TRT Telecommunications Corporation               A  B  D
TTE of Charleston                                A     D
TTI Midland-Odessa                                  B  D
Tuck Data Communications                            B
Tyler Telecom                                    A  B  D
Tymnet                                           A  B
T-Tel                                            A  B  D
United Comunications, Inc.                          B  D
United Telephone Co. dba Telamerica L.D.         A  B  D
United Telephone Long Distance                         D
Unitel                                           A     D
Universal Telephone Systems                         B  D
U.S. Link                                        A  B  D
U.S. Long Distance, Inc.                               D
U.S. Sprint [Isacomm, Telenet, LD/USA]           A  B  D
U.S. Tele-Comm, Inc.                                   D
Valley Star-Tel                                  A  B  D
Valley Wats                                      A  B  D
Valu-Line of Amarillo                            A  B  D
Valu-Line of Angletown                           A
Valu-Line of Kansas, Inc.                        A  B
Valu-Line of Longview, Inc.                      A  B  D
Valu-Line of of St. Joseph                       A     D
Valu-Line of of Wichita Falls                    A  B  D
Vartec National, Inc.                            A  B  D
Vertelco Systems                                 A  B
Virtual Network Services Corp.                   A  B  D
Vista-United Telecommunications                  A
Vortel Communications, Inc.                      A  B  D
VTA, Inc.                                              D
VYVX Telecom, Inc.                               A  B  D
West Coast Telecommunications, Inc.              A  B  D
Westcom Data Tel                                 A
Westcom Long Distance                            A  B
Westel, Inc.                                     A  B  D
Westel Communications (Telamarketing Comm)       A  B  D
Western Express Communications, Inc.             A
Western Information Systems, Inc.                A  B
Western Oklahoma Information Systems             A  B  D
Western Telenet, Inc.                            A     D
WI Amer Sharecom Inc.                            A
Wiles Communication Service                         B  D
Williams Telecommunications Group                A
Wisconsin L.D.S.                                    B  D
Wylon                                            A  B  D
Yavapai Telephone Exchange                       A  B  D


                         /                   /
                         /  NIA073 / File 06 /
                         /    Vox Populi:    /
                         /     NIA News      /
                         /                   /


Date:  July 22, 1991
Source:  AT&T Newsbriefs
C. Sources:  San Fransisco Chronicle (7/20/91), Dallas Times Herald (7/20/91)

A prankster who intercepted and rerouted confidential telephone messages from
voice mail machines in City Hall  prompted officials to pull
the plug on the phone system.  The city purchased the high-tech telephone
system in 1986 for $28 million.  But officials forget to require each worker to
use a password that allows only that worker to retrieve or transfer voice
messages from their "phone mailboxes," said AT&T spokesman Virgil Wildey.  As a
result, Wildey said, someone who understands the system can transfer messages
around, creating chaos.


Georgia's New Area Code
Date: July 1991
Source: Southern Bell Customer Newsletter

Telephone use in Georgia has increased so rapidly -- caused by increased
population and the use of services like fax machines and mobile telephones --
that we are running out of telephone numbers.

Southern Bell will establish a new area code -- 706 -- in Georgia in May 1992.
The territory currently designated by the 404 area code will be split.

Customers in the Atlanta Metropolitan local calling area will continue
to use the 404 area code.  Customers outside the Atlanta Metropolitan toll free
calling area will use the 706 area code.  The 912 area code (South Georgia)
will not be affected by this change.

We realize the transition to a new area code will take some getting used to.
So, between May 3, 1992 and August 2, 1992, you can dial EITHER 706 or 404 to
reach numbers in the new area.  After August 2, 1992, the use of the 706 area
code is required.

We are announcing the new area code far in advance to allow customers to plan
for the change.


Countywide Calling For Southern Bell Customers
Date: July 1991
Source: Southern Bell Customer Newsletter

As required by legislation enacted by the Georgia General Assembly and by order
of Georgia Public Service Commission, beginning July 1, 1991, you will be able
to make calls within your county free of toll charges.

On July 1, calls within your county boundary that were previously long-distance
calls are now local calls.  Therefore, no itemization or toll charges will
appear on your telephone bill for calls within your county.

If you currently use the "1" plus 10-digit dialing or "1" plus seven-digit
dialing, you should continue that same dialing pattern with the implementation
of countywide calling on July 1.

In addition, you can obtain a telephone number within your county by dialing
411 for Directory Assistance with applicable charges applying to these calls.


Some Bellcore Acroynms
Source: Telecom Digest

BCR     Bell Communications Research
FCIF    FACS Component Interface Format *
        (FACS = Facility Assignment and Control System *)
LUSI    Local User System Interface
NMA     Network Monitoring and Analysis System
RUSI    Remote User System Interface
SCCS    Switching Control Center System *
SEAS    Signaling Engineering and Administration System *
SOP     Service Order Processor *
SSP     Service Switching Point *
TOP     Transactions-Oriented Protocol *
UPL     User Program Layer
USL     User System Language

* = belongs to Bellcore


Source: United Press Wire

   BALTIMORE (UPI) -- Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Co. wants to
expand its Caller ID system to businesses with centrex systems.

   C&P has submitted a plan to the Public Service Commission that
would allow any business with three or more lines to buy Caller ID.

   The service, which permits users to obtain the numbers of incoming
calls, has been available in Maryland since October, 1989.

   So far, Caller ID mainly has been marketed and sold as a service
for residential and small business customers.

   It also has been available to large businesses with PBX switchboards
on a special-order basis.

   But the service has not been widely available to C&P's 11,000
business customers with centrex. Centrex are large-scale
telecommunications systems that can handle anywhere from three to
10,000 or more telephone lines.


Teenage Hacker Emulates Hess
Source: Summarised from Computer Weekly
Date: 8th August 1991.

A 16 year old schoolboy named Jamie Moulding has been cautioned by
plain-clothed police after hacking into a military computer and trying to sell
secrets to the USSR.  He claims to have read the Ministry of Defence personnel
and payroll files.  One computer he entered held details of a British Army tank
control system.  Moulding first incorporated details of the system into his own
simulation package, and then phoned the Soviet Union's London embassy to try to
sell the information.  Next day two policemen turned up at his home and spoke
to his parents.

Moulding's telephone bills were unwittingly paid by his school.  He wrote an
autodialer program and an automatic hack program which "planted a command which
led to a display of passwords".

DEC denied that its systems had been hacked.  The police officers were
unavailable for comment.


Electronic Mail Beams Shuttle's Message Home
By Joe Abernathy and Mark Carreau
Source: Houston Chronicle, Page 1A, Copyright 1991
Date: August 5th, 1991

   Electronic mail networks, the message medium of the information age, made
their debut in the space age Sunday aboard the shuttle Atlantis as part of an
effort to develop a communications system for a future space station.
   Details of the test were being closely guarded because of concerns over a
possible hacker incident or "public free-for-all" on the nation's computer
networks, according to one engineer involved with the project. Privacy and
medical ethics also loom large as issues.  [...]
   Electronic mail offers a new way for astronauts to stay in touch with their
families, Mission Control, and potentially, the millions of people who use the
nation's interlinked computer networks. It could produce far-reaching change in
the way scientists and others interact with the space program.  Currently, only
the shuttle communicator is allowed to talk with the astronauts during a
flight, except for a private medical conference each day. E-mail could change
that by letting any number of people exchange information, while scientists and
engineers on the ground could assume direct control over their experiments in
   [Bryon] Han and fellow Apple employees Michael Silver and James Beninghaus
have donated their time to the project.  They are using low-cost, commercially
available products, rather than the costly custom products often used in
science. [!!!]  The e-mail will play a role in controlling experiments,
electronic flight information, and transfer of experiment results to the
ground, Han said, as well as sending data up to the shuttle.
   In the future, the system might be used to transmit and manipulate
information from the many medical experiments NASA conducts. But this raises a
number of problems regarding privacy and medical ethics.  For example, one
experiment in this flight seeks to correct a blood-flow problem associated with
weightless ness that causes some astronauts to faint upon their return to
Earth.  But this experiment is being monitored with the same Apple computer
that is playing host to the e-mail system.  Even though the results aren't
being transmitted over computer networks this time, they might be next time --
and computer networks are notoriously insecure.
   Inquisitive computer enthusiasts -- hackers -- are in fact one of NASA's
chief concerns in regard to the use of electronic mail.  The space agency
initially sought to conduct the tests without publicity, but word quickly
percolated around the nation's computer networks -- perhaps indicating that the
concerns were justified.  A chorus of calls was heard requesting the e-mail
address of the astronauts -- but that raised another problem more pressing than
any threat from malicious hacking, that of capacity.
  "We have things we need to accomplish with the limited amount of time we
have, and we do have a very limited amount of data we can move between Mission
Control and the orbiter," said Deborah Muratore, an engineer in the space
station support office at Johnson Space Center and the experiment manager.
   In addition to voice communication, the shuttles are equipped with Teletype
and fax machines for the transmis sion and reception of printed material and
even photo graphs.
    "Conceivably, everything they move that way could be moved from computer to
computer," Muratore said. "From a space station standpoint it would be much
preferable to transfer the information electronically without paper in the loop
the way we do today on the shuttle."  "Paper is going to be a limited
resource, something that has to be thrown away or reused on the space
station," she said. "It becomes trash. So the more we can eliminate on the
space station the better off we are."
   The current experiment does not represent the first time that civilians have
had a direct communications link with those in space. Since January, the Soviet
space station Mir has maintained a "mail drop" for ham radio operators to use
in leaving messages for the cosmonauts.  "It's very similar" in function, said
Gary Morris, a former member of the Johnson Space Center Amateur Radio Club who
now lives in San Diego. "The packet bulletin board system on Mir allows an
amateur (ham radio operator) on the ground to leave mail messages.  "What
they're doing with the Mac is different in that they're going through the whole
(electronic mail) network.  It's much more complex."


Pentagon computer cracked by teen-age hacker in Israel
Source: Houston Chronicle News Service

KARMIEL, Israel -- An 18-year-old computer whiz gained access to a Pentagon
computer and saw US military secrets in his home during the gulf war, police
said friday.
  The hacker, identified as Deri Schriebman, was placed under house arrest
Thursday after police searched his home in the northern Israeli city of
  Police have not heard from US authorities on the security aspects of the
case, said Galilee Region Police Commander Rami Rav.
  "The way he cracked the Pentagon computer should certainly interest them.  He
was able to look at classified material during the gulf war, especially at one
very sensitive project which is also connected to Israel," Rav told Reuters.
  Schriebman, already a graduate of Israel's Technion University, also built
equipment to place international telephone calls free of charge, bypassing the
computers of Israel's telephone company.
  Police said he also obtained the names of holders of Visa cards, passing the
information to other computer "hackers" in North America, who were arrested
after yearlong buying sprees.
  Police are investigating the case and have not yet said whether they will
press charges.  But Rav said the youth did not benefit from the Visa fraud.
  "Everything he did was out of curiousity...he made no profit from it, neither
from the Visa cards nor from the sensitive security information."


Subject: CIA dumps on the National Security Archive

The National Security Archive (NSA), a non-profit clearinghouse for Freedom of
Information Act (FOIA) materials, requested from the Central Intelligence
Agency (CIA) a list of materials that the CIA had released under the FOIA.  The
CIA responded to the request by producing "a random dump", 5000-pages long
summarizing the released material.  The NSA and the CIA are frequently at odds
with each other, hence the "hostile" reply by the CIA.  Under the FOIA,
agencies are not required to create (i.e.  organize, sort, or merge) data,
merely to provide information that already exists.  So, it is unlikely that the
NSA would have any recourse other than to attempt to reconstruct the index from
the info-garbage it was given. [Common Cause 17(4): 20 (1991)]


Subject: CAA grant Cat IIIB autoland clearance for 747/76

In the September 19th Rolling Stone at page 67 an article titled "Samurai
Hackers" by Lynda Edwards tells us that a: "new breed of hacker has been
finding a niche in the corporate world in the last two years.  These hackers
are hired by white-collar professionals at ad agencies, law firms, newspapers,
and investment houses who want to steal co-workers' ideas and clients or
pillage supervisors computer files for marketing strategies, performance
evaluations and managerial gossip."

Ms. Edwards presents several tales of crackers hired by unethical people in
business to snoop in or sabotage other peoples' computer files.  She also
describes how victims sometimes hire their own crackers to mount a
counter-attack.  The crackers use their knowledge and skills to ferret out
information from companies' networks and minicomputers.  They usually receive a
leg up from their employers, who get them modem 'phone numbers and basic
account/password info.  The crackers then overcome or bypass the often trivial
security on the target systems.  Most of what they do could be done by any
jackleg expert with a given system, but the crackers are the agents of computer
Ms. Edwards presents several tales of crackers hired by unethical people in
business to snoop in or sabotage other peoples' computer files.  She also
describes how victims sometimes hire their own crackers to mount a
counter-attack.  The crackers use their knowledge and skills to ferret out
information from companies' networks and minicomputers.  They usually receive a
leg up from their employers, who get them modem 'phone numbers and basic
account/password info.  The crackers then overcome or bypass the often trivial
security on the target systems.  Most of what they do could be done by any
jackleg expert with a given system, but the crackers are the agents of computer
illiterates and thus constitute a threat unconsidered by the managers of
systems in non-computer businesses.

These crackers are seen to be somewhat akin to the wandering samurai of Japan's
past.  They work as mercenaries, honing their own skills and testing them in
combat on behalf of employers they often hold in contempt.  (The crackers are
said to refer to ignorant computer users as "Stupids.")  The samurai image is
distorted and romanticized but the jobs the crackers take on are very real.

These crackers are well paid by those who hire them through bulletin boards or
by word-of-mouth.  Tales of their exploits circulate on BBS's and they are
getting some notice in 2600 magazine.


Subject: Computer Security Breach at Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant
Date: September 16, 1991

AP writer Steven K. Paulson reports on 9/16/91 that security lapses at the
Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant included the storage of top-secret bomb
designs for a week on a VAX accessible from the public phone network. In other
instances, workers transferred classified working materials from secure
computers to lower security ones, including PCs, because they were tired of
constant changes in the secure systems and wanted to work on familiar [stable?]

Head of DOE operations at Rocky Flats Bob Nelson said that the agency started
last year a $37M program to correct security problems, following the
recommendations of outside security experts.

Nelson also said that the unclassified VAX was used by employees working from
home, but that if someone tries to break in ``bells and whistles go off'' [is
he so sure???]

According to other documents obtained by the AP, other DOE computers had been
found to be vulnerable to break-ins.


Subject: Denver Hacker Hacks NASA
Source: The Denver Post, Denver & The West section   p. 1
Date: 9/25/91

NASA vs. hobbyist: Computer whiz accused of illegal access, mischief
By. Peter G. Chronis Denver Post staff writer

An Aurora computer hobbyist who allegedly used a personal computer and his home
phone to penetrate NASA computers hacked off Uncle Sam enough to be indicted on
seven federal counts yesterday.

Richard G. Wittman, 24, the alleged "hacker," was accused of two felonies,
including gaining unauthorized access to NASA computers to alter, damage, or
destroy information, and five misdemeanor counts of interfering with the
government's operation of the computers.

Wittman allegedly got into the NASA system on March 7, June 11, June 19, June
28, July 25, July 30, and Aug. 2, 1990.

Bob Pence, FBI chief in Denver, said Wittman used a personal computer in his
home and gained access to the NASA systems over telephone lines.

The investigation, which took more than a year, concluded that Wittman accessed
the NASA computer system and agency computers at the Marshall Space flight
Center in Huntsville, Ala., and the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt,

The NASA computers are linked to a system called Telenet, which allows
qualified people to access government data bases.  A user name and password are
required to reach the NASA computers.

Federal sources declined to reveal more information because the complex case
involves "sensitive material."

Wittman, a high-school graduate, apparently hadn't worked in the computer
industry and held a series of odd jobs.

The felony counts against him each carry a possible five-year prison term and
$250,000 fine.


Source: NewsBytes

According to a news release from {NewsByte}, direct international
dialing is now available from Moscow from 0000-0900 each day.

Local analysts say the reason for the start of direct-dial service is
that a second international phone exchange, originally scheduled to
start six months ago, has finally been launched.

To dial international numbers from Moscow, one must dial 8, then wait
for a second dial tone, dial 10 + country code + city code + phone


Subject: Company Dares Computer Intruders to Hack Away
Source: The Detroit News, Sunday, Aug. 4, p. 3A

It's a little like inviting robbers to knock over your bank.

To prove its computer programs are secure from electronic intruders,
Unix System Laboratories wants hackers to try to break in.

The company set up an unattended test computer at its headquarters in
Summit, N.J., and bets that unauthorized users can't get into its mock
payroll accounts, can't cut phony checks and can't breach private

Initially, the challenge was issued to corporate security experts--and
none has been able to sneak in during the past few months, said
spokesman D. Scott Belin. Now, in a bold publicity stunt, the company
will offer a toll-free phone number to let any whiz kid or mischief
maker log onto a computer and hack away.

"There's probably 10,000 computer hackers out there," Belin said.
"We're trying to figure out a way tohandle all the phone calls once we
make the number available."

He said the company, which makes a computer operating system widely
used by phone companies, has yet to decide how to publicize the
toll-free access number.

Marilyn Partel, an operating systems manager at the company, said the
software has been redesigned so that no one--even if authorized--has
unlimited access to the system.


Subject:  Looking for Sundevil Victims

                Contact: Craig Neidorf and David Sobel
          (Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility)

Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR) is pursuing a
lawsuit against the Secret Service seeking the release of information
concerning Operation Sun Devil.  In recently filed court papers, the
agency claims that the information cannot be disclosed because, among
other reasons, disclosure would violate the privacy of those
individuals who are the targets of the investigation.  This argument
can be overcome if CPSR obtains signed releases from those
individuals.  CPSR is requesting the cooperation of anyone who was the
subject of a Sun Devil raid on or about May 7, 1990.  We are prepared
to enter into an attorney-client relationship with individuals
responding to this request, so that confidentiality will be assured.

     Please respond ASAP to:

                           David Sobel
                           CPSR Legal Counsel
                           (202) 544-9240


Source: NewsBytes
Date: October 1, 1991

JEFFERSON VALLEY, NEW YORK, U.S.A., 1991 OCT 1 (NB) -- Cyberpunk
co-author Katie Hafner, in an interview with Newsbytes, has responded
to allegations of fabrication raised by Kevin Mitnick, one of the main
subjects of the book.

Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier (Katie Hafner
and John Markoff; Simon & Schuster, 1991 - $22.95) devotes the first
section of the book called "Kevin: The Dark Side Hacker" to the
activities of Mitnick and his associates, Lenny DiCicco, "Susan
Thunder" and "Roscoe" (the last two names are pseudonyms; the persons
would be interviewed only under the protection of anonymity). Mitnick,
who served a prison term related to his intrusions into Digital
Equipment Corporation's systems, says in a letter to the Summer 1991
issue of 2600: The Hacker Quarterly that the section concerning him
"is 20% fabricated and libelous."

Mitnick, in the letter, suggests that the authors had motivation for
the alleged unfairness. He said  "It seems that the authors acted with
malice to cause me harm after my refusal to cooperate. Interestingly,
I did offer to participate as a factual information source if I was
compensated for my time, but the authors refused, claiming it would
taint my objectivity. So, consequently, I declined to cooperate."

Hafner confirmed that Mitnick had refused cooperation after his offer
to meet for pay was rejected but denied that his action caused any
malicious or unfair behavior. She said "I feel that the payment of
interview subjects is completely unethical and I have never been
involved in such a thing and did not intend to start then. We
mentioned in the book that Kevin had refused to cooperate but did not
reveal that he had asked for payment. Since he has not brought the
subject up, both in a call to the Tom Snyder radio show when I was on
and in the 2600 letter, I will confirm the fact that his
non-cooperation was due to our refusal to pay."

Hafner continued "Mitnick's lack of cooperation certainly did not lead
to any malice or bias directed toward him. Everything in the book is,
to the best of my knowledge, factual and we did everything possible to
insure its accuracy. We attempted to get a confirming source for
everything we were told and interviewed dozens of persons for the Dark
Hacker section alone."

'Kevin's lack of cooperation did make the job more difficult and, may
have possibly hurt him. If he had been willing to talk, he would have
had an opportunity to respond to other people's statements about him
but, even though we sent him numerous "return receipt" and overnight
letters asking him to meet with us, he refused. Two cases in point: in
the 2600 letter, he says that we described him as always eating in a
computer room while talking on the telephone to Bonnie, his future
wife. He denies this and says that I was trying to 'paint an unsavory
picture'. It was Bonnie who told us that he was always eating while he
was talking -- we didn't make it up -- and without the ability to
speak to him, we had to choose to go on."

Hafner went on: "The second example is his statement that we said that
he taunted USC's Mark Brown when, in fact, he 'never spoke with Mark
Brown'. Brown says that he has definitely spoken to Mitnick and that he
remembers the calls well and can call to mind details from them. If we
had spoken to Mitnick, he would have had a chance to dispute such

In response to Mitnick's object to the authors' changing of items that
would possibly identify DiCicco as an unemployment cheat, Hafner said
"That was my call. We tried to protect identities wherever it was
desired. Lenny asked us to change the name and we did just as we
also used public aliases for 'Roscoe' and 'Susan Thunder' at their
request. Contrary to Kevin's statement, Lenny has not been travelling
around with us promoting the book and has received no benefit from it
other than the ability to tell his story as he understands it."


Subject: Phone Gall
Source: InformationWeek, pp.12-13
       (By Mary E. Thyfault with Diane Medina and Bob Violino)
Date: August 26, 1991

AT&T has sued nearly 20 of its large business users for refusing to pay
for calls made by hackers through their corporate telephone In recent
months, the question of whether businesses victimized by phone hackers
should be forced to pay for such calls has stirred acrimonious debate
and prompted numerous actions before the Federal Communications
Commission. Estimates of the corporate monies lost annually to phone
hackers begin at $500 million and go into the billions.

Now an InformationWeek investigation reveals a broad effort by AT&T to
shift this debate to the courts. Among the corporations AT&T has quietly
sued are Avis Rent-A-Car System Inc., FMC Corp., Citgo Petroleum Corp.,
Procter & Gamble Co., and Perkin-Elmer Corp. (see below). In the largest
such lawsuit uncovered by IW, the United Nations was the victim of
nearly $1 million in unauthorized calls.

While the existence of these lawsuits remains unknown to most large
users, AT&T has been playing legal hardball with corporate customers for
at least a year, in most cases collecting fees in confidential,
out-of-court settlements. It appears no case has yet reached the trial

The fact that users back down is no surprise; AT&T is a $36.11 billion
behemoth with a crack legal staff. The mere threat of a lawsuit is
enough to force most firms to pull out their checkbooks.

"Who can afford to go to court with the phone company?" asks Roger
Longtin, counsel for electronics component distributor Avnet Inc. in
Great Neck, N.Y. , which is currently negotiating with AT&T over nearly
$1 million in disputed charges.

AT&T's long-distance rivals MCI Communications Corp. and US Sprint
Communications Co. say they have not sued any users over this issue, and
IW could find no evidence of any legal actions. Such a suit, explains a
spokesman for MCI, "is a good way to lose a customer".

One analyst argues, however, that MCI and Sprint can't afford to be nice
guys much longer. "I'd be surprised if MCI and Sprint didn't file suits
- uncollectibles have been a horrendous problem in the long-distance
business," says John Bain, senior VP at Raymond James & Associates Inc.
in St. Petersburg, Fla. One lawyer who has represented corporate victims
of toll fraud says the out-of-court settlements always involve some
payments by customers. AT&T typically starts negotiations by knocking
15% off the user's bill, he says; that's about the break-even point for
AT&T's profit on long-distance calls, according to analysts. AT&T does
not discuss litigation, a spokesman says.

Some customers are enraged at AT&T and the telecom industry over this
issue. They argue that the carriers and PBX vendors are not providing
enough warning, training, or support. "The carriers should do away with
the attitude of 'The customer should've known,'" charges Tim Honaker CFO
for Dearborn Financial Publishing lnc. in Chicago, which has been hacked
for $65,000. The telcom suppliers "come in with these great technologies
and then say, 'By the way, you gotta figure out how to manage this thing
on your own.' Well, we're not in that business." Suppliers should at
least share in the responsibility and liability for phone fraud charges,
according to victims.

Vendors respond that telecom managers can virtually end fraud by
properly managing their phone systems, particularly remote access
features. Some users agree. Says Jay Silverberg, president of the
National Rolm Users Group, "Although from a technical perspective the
vendor has the responsibility to provide the ability to make a system
secure, it's the user's responsibility to manage it."

The software to monitor such systems isn't cheap, however-about $120,000
on average-and "it can only cut down the hemorrhaging, not eliminate
hacking," says James Ross of Ross Engineering Inc., a software
engineering firm in Sterling, Va. Most victims argue that carriers have
the technology to detect hacking at their fingertips.

While the victims' attorneys say AT&T hasn't improved its security
measures, all the carriers and the major PBX vendors-Northern Telecom,
Rolm Co., and the business telephone unit of AT&T-say they are putting
increasing emphasis on helping users fight phone hacking. AT&T offers
seminars at every user group meeting, for example, and Rolm announced in
April it would begin assigning a security coordinator in each of its 31
branch locations.

Currently, AT&T has seven fulltime staffers charged with educating
customers and investigating fraud cases. Users claim that number is
woefully low. (Meanwhile, the number of AT&T lawyers pursuing litigation
in this area is, an AT&T spokesman admits, "probably in the tens.") AT&T
has 40,000 PBX installations and 4 million business long-distance
customers. "If they really want to protect the public, they need to hire
more like 700 people," says Charles Helein, a Washington attorney who
has represented several toll fraud victims.  AT&T says it will add three
more staffers next month.  Some users even claim AT&T is not devoting
more resources to ending toll fraud because it is making too much money
on such calls-a charge AT&T vehemently denies.

"If you significantly cut phone fraud, you have to wonder what kind of
impact it would have on their revenue," says Thomas Crowe, attorney for
Chartways Technologies Inc. in Rockville, Md., which suffered $81,789 in
unauthorized calls.

"That's ludicrous," says an AT&T spokesman. "AT&T devotes enormous
resources to this." The company argues that it is doing more than
required. On a weekly basis, AT&T monitors the three area codes in South
America and Central America that receive the most illegal calls.  When a
sudden increase in volume is noted, AT&T tries to notify customers,
reaching about 25%, of them before they themselves notice the break-in.

"I can't tell you that every week we get to everyone, but we attempt to
based on our resources," says Robert Carman, head of AT&T's corporate
security division. Still, the FCC says all complaints filed to date by
users over this issue have involved AT&T.

Frank Chrz, VP of office services at ITT Consumer Financial Corp. in
Minneapolis, says AT&T "was very responsive" in helping him detect and
stop the hackers that penetrated his company's Rolm PBX, racking up
$100,000 in charges. But that cooperation ended when the bill came due
and ITT refused to pay. AT&T sued ITT, which promptly sued both Rolm and
Rolm's PBX distributor. All four settled out of court. At least two
other users have sued their PBX vendors after being sued by AT&T:  New
York City Human Resources Administration sued Northern Telecom Inc., and
Western Diversified Life Insurance Co. in Deerfield, Ill., countersued
AT&T as both its PBX supplier and long-distance carrier.

In another twist, two corporations sued AT&T before AT&T could sue them:
Mitsubishi International Corp. in New York (IW, June 24,p.14) and John
D. Hollingsworth On Wheels Inc. in Greenville, S.C.

Despite all the complex legal maneuvering, every case eventually comes
down to finger-pointing. No one wants to accept responsibility for toll
fraud. Until now, the FCC has typically ruled against users, but
mounting corporate anger may mean the commission will impose some sort
of liability ceiling. What is clear is that users and vendors will have
to work together to solve the problem.

"In no way are we inferring we can catch everything," says Bob Fox,
Sprint's assistant VP of corporate security. "The majority of the time
we're getting to the customer before he knows what's going on. But we're
not going to catch everything every time. It takes teamwork.

"The customer is going to get hurt if we do our thing but he doesn't do
his, or vice versa." -Mary E. Thyfault with Diane Medina and Bob Violino


Subject: Now It Can Be Told "Mad Hackers' Key Party" [excerpt]
Source: Unknown User
Date: September 30, 1991

Hosted by Geraldo Rivera

Geraldo:  I'm Geraldo rivera.  And now, It can be told.

Geraldo:  Joining us now via satellite from Oakland, CA is the
Assistant District Attorney Don Ingraham ... for Alameda County and he
has been prosecuting computer hackers for years.

Geraldo:  Don, how do you respond to the feeling common among so many
hackers that what they're doing is a public service; they're exposing
the flaws in our security systems?

Don:  Right, and just like the people who rape a coed on campus are
exposing the flaws in our nation's higher education security.  It's
absolute nonsense.  They are doing nothing more than showing off to
each other, and satisfying their own appetite to know something that
is not theirs to know.

Geraldo:  Don, you stand by, Craig as well.  And when we come back
we'll hear more from prosecutor Ingraham and from, I guess his
archrival here, the Mad Hacker Craig Neidorf.

Geraldo:  We're back with Craig Neidorf, a former University of
Missouri student who ran a widely distributed electronic newsletter
for computer hackers.  He is so proud of being America's
Most Wanted computer hacker that he has put together this very
impressive scrapbook.

Geraldo:  Knight Lightning I guess that was your code?

KL:  It was my editor handle.

Geraldo:  That's your handle.  OK.  And from Oakland, CA we are
talking with the Assistant District Attorney Don Ingraham, who is hard
driven, you might say, to put people like Craig behind bars.  Don, do
you think Craig's lucky that he's not behind bars right now?

Don:  Yes, I think he's extraordinarily lucky.  He was part of a
conspiracy, in my opinion, to take property that wasn't his and share
it with others.  They charged him with interstate transport of stolen
property - couldn't make the threshold -and it came out that it had
been compromised by, unfortunately, released by another Bellcore
subsidiary.  But was certainly not through any doing of HIS that he is
a free man.

Geraldo:  So you think that his activities stink, then.

Don:  Absolutely.  No Question about it.

Geraldo:  Craig, you wanna respond?  Are you doing something for the
greater good of society?

KL:  Well I was merely publishing a newsletter.  I  didn't go out and
find this document.  Rather it was sent to me.  In many ways it could
be compared to Daniel Ellsberg sending the Pentagon Papers to the New
York Times.

Geraldo:  Do you figure it that way Don?  Is he like Daniel Ellsberg?

Don:  No, Ellsberg went to court to deal with it.  Daniel Ellsberg's
release of the Pentagon Papers is the subject of a published court
decision to point out it was a matter of national security and
national interest.  The E911 codes, which is the citizen's link to the
police department are not a matter of national security.  They're a
matter of the central service to the community.......

Geraldo:  You broke into the 911 system?  He broke into the 911

KL:  No, that's not correct.  I never entered any 911 telephone

Don:  I didn't say he entered into it.  What I said was that he and
Riggs conspired together to take a code that they knew was necessary
to 911 and to take it apart to see how it worked.  They never had the
owner's permission, they never asked for it.

Geraldo:  Alright, lemme ask you this....

KL:  The court found that there was no conspiracy here.

Geraldo:  You were acquitted.  You were vindicated at least from
criminal responsibility.  Lemme just quickly ask you this:  hackers
have been inside the White House computer.

KL:  Yes they have.

Geraldo:  And they've been inside the Pentagon computer.

KL:  Yes.

Geraldo:  And if Saddam Hussein hired some hackers whether they're
from Holland or any other place, he could've gotten into these
computers, presumably.

KL:  Presumably, he could've.

Geraldo:  And gotten some valuable information.

KL:  It's definitely possible.

Geraldo:  And you still think hackers are performing a public service?

KL:  That's not what I said.  I think that those kind of activities
are wrong.  But by the same token, the teenagers, or some of the
people here that are not performing malicious acts, while they should
be punished should not be published as extreme as the law currently

Geraldo:  You're response to that Don?

Don:  I don't think they're being punished very much at all.  We're
having trouble even taking away their gear.  I don't know one of them
has done hard time in a prison.  The book, Hafner's book on
_Cyberpunk_, points out that even Mitnick who is a real electronic
Hannibal Lecter ... did not get near any of the punishment that what
he was doing entitled him to.

Geraldo:   An electronic Hannibal Lecter.  OK, stand by,
we'll be back with more of this debate in a moment...

Geraldo:  Back with Craig Neidorf and prosecutor Don Ingraham.  Craig,
do you think hackers are voyeurs or are they potentially terrorists?

KL:  I think they resemble voyeurs more than terrorists.  They are
often times looking at places where they don't belong, but most
hackers do not intend to cause any damage.

Geraldo:  Do you buy that Don?

Don:  If they stopped at voyeurism they would be basically
sociopathic, but not doing near the harm they do now.  But they don't
stop at looking, that's the point.  They take things out and share
them with others, and they are not being accountable and being
responsible as to whom they are sharing this information.  That is the

Geraldo:  Can they find out my credit rating?  I know that's not a
national security issue, but I'm concerned about it.

Don:  Piece of cake.

Geraldo:  No problem.

Don:  Assuming....

Geraldo:  Go ahead.  Assuming I have a credit rating...hahahah....

Don:  Assume that the credit is not carried by someone who is using
adequate security.

Geraldo:  But you think Craig it's not problem.

KL: I think it's no problem.

Geraldo:  Give me quickly the worst case scenario.  Say Abu Nidal had
you working for him.

KL:  I'm sorry?

Geraldo: Abu Nidal, notorious .....

KL:  As far as your credit rating?

Geraldo:  No, not as far as my credit rating..  The world, national

KL:  Well, hackers have gotten into computer systems owned by the
government before.  At this point they've never acknowledged that it
was anything that was ever classified.  But even some unclassified
information could be used to the detriment of our country.

Geraldo:  Like the counter-terrorist strategy on January 15th, the day
of the deadline expired in the Persian Gulf.

KL: Perhaps if Saddam Hussein had somehow known for sure that we were
going to launch an attack, it might have benefited him in some way,
but I'm really not sure.

Geraldo:  Don, worst case scenario, 30 seconds?

Don:  They wipe out our communications system.  Rather easily done.
Nobody talks to anyone else, nothing moves, patients don't get their
medicine.  We're on our knees.

Geraldo:  What do you think of Craig, quickly, and people like him?

Don:  What do I think of Craig?  I have a lot of respect for Craig, I
think he's probably going to be an outstanding lawyer someday.  But he
is contributing to a disease, and a lack of understanding ethically,
that is causing a lot of trouble.

Geraldo:  One word answer. As the computer proliferate won't hackers
also proliferate?  Won't there be more and more people like you to
deal with?

Knight Lightning:  I think we're seeing a new breed of hacker.  And
some of them will be malicious.

Geraldo:  Some of them will be malicious.  Yes, well, that's it...for
now.  I'm Geraldo Rivera.

[End of Program]


Subject: 2600 Magazine Exposes Security Holes
Source: NewsBytes
Date: October 18, 1991

2600 Magazine Exposes Security Holes 10/18/91
ARMONK, NEW YORK, U.S.A., 1991 OCT 18 (NB)  -- Supported by videotape
examples, Emmanuel Goldstein, editor and publisher of 2600 Magazine:
The Hacker Quarterly, told those in attendance at an October 17th New
York City press conference that "the American public is often lulled
into a false sense of security; a security that is often not supported
by the facts of specific cases."

The videotapes, produced by 2600 and provided to the press show both
the intrusion of a Dutch "hacker" in to United States Military
computers and what Goldstein alleges is the fallability of a brand of
mechanical, pushbutton locks used by, among others, New York State
University sites, Federal Express, United Parcel Service, JFK
International Airport, IBM and NASA.

Goldstein told Newsbytes "We invested considerable time and money to
wake people up to the fact that we have a false sense of security when
it comes not only to computer networks but to physical safety as

The tape of the Dutch "hacker" was made by Goldstein while in Europe.
and shows the intrusion into a Unites States Army computer system. The
intruder was able to set up a fictitious account called "danquayle"
and, once into the system, was able to obtain "root" privileges thus
giving him total control of the workings of the system.

A portion of this tape had previously been shown with Goldstein's
approval on an episode of the Gerald Rivera television show "Now It
Can Be Told". Goldstein told Newsbytes that one reason for his release
of the entire tape to the press was his feeling that the Rivera
episode entitled "The Mad Hacker's Key Party" had distorted the
message of the tape - "This was not a case of a terrorist break-in but
was rather simply a demonstration of the lack of security of our
systems. To find root accounts with password like "Kuwait" and lack of
sophisticated security in our military computers should be of real
concern and should not be lost in an explotation of the 'hacker'

A background paper provided at the conference by 2600 explains the
entire intrusion effort in detail and states "The purpose of this
demonstration is to show just how easy it really was. Great care was
taken to ensure that no damage or alteration of data occurred on this
particular system. No military secrets were taken and no files were
saved to a disk by the hackers. What is frightening is that nobody
knows who else has access to this information or what their
motivations might be. This is a warning that cannot be taken lightly."

The second videotape show Goldstein and other 2600 staff opening
seemingly at will locks manufactured by Simplex Security Systems.  The
locks of the mechanical pushbutton combination variety were shown to
be installed at the State of New York University at Stony Brook, JFK
International Airport and on Federal Express and United Parcel pick-up
boxes throughout the New York Metropolitan area.

In the film, Goldstein is shown filling out a Federal Express envelope
for delivery to 2600 Magazine and inserting in the Fedex dropbox. He
then lifts the weather protection cover on the box's lock and keys a
combination that allows him to open the lock and remove his envelope.
Scott Skinner, a SUNY student and 2600 staff member told Newsbytes
that it had actually taken the staff 10 minutes to determine the
proper code combinations to open the lock.

Skinner explained, "While Simplex prefers people to think that there
is an endless number of permutations to the lock, there are actually
only 1,085. In most cases, even this number is greatly reduced -- if
one knows that only three buttons are being used, it reduces the
possibilities to 135. Additionally, we found that, once we had the
combination to one Federal Express dropbox, it worked in every other
one that we tried in the New York area."

Goldstein told Newsbytes "When we contacted Simplex, they first denied
that the locks were unsafe and then said that the permutations were
much greater. After some discussion, they admitted that the 1,085
figure was correct but said that it would take a person with a
complete listing of the combinations over four hours to try them all.
Our experience obviously shows that they may be opened in a much
shorter time than that."

Goldstein also pointed out that, "although a $5 Master combination
lock may be broken by a crowbar, it is a much more secure combination
device. It has 64,000 combinations compared to the 1,085 with the

Goldstein continued, "One of the real problems is that, should a
person have the misfortune to be robbed, entry due to a failure of the
Simplex lock gives no evidence of a forcible break-in and police and
insurance companies often put the blame on the homeowner or office
manager for 'giving away the combination.' It really can create a

Skinner told Newsbytes "I'm really concerned about this. I'm a student
at SUNY, Stony Brook and all our dormitories use these locks as the
only means of security. I've shown the problem to Scott Law who is
responsible for residence security but he has discounted the problem
and said that the locks were installed at the recommendation of the
campus locksmith. The locksmith, Garry Lenox contradicts Law and says
that he recommended against these locks years ago and said that they
were not secure for dormitory use." Skinner said that he will write an
article for the college newspaper in an attempt to raise consciousness
about this problem.

Goldstein also said that he intends to publish the list of valid
combinations in an up-coming issue of 2600 to demonstrate to the
public the problems with the lock. He further said that he will raise
the issue on his weekly radio show, "Off The Hook", heard on New
York's WBAI-FM.

In response to a Newsbytes question concerning how the 2600 staff
happened to become involved in a problem with locks, Goldstein said,
"We're hackers and when we see something with buttons on it, whether
it's a computer or not, we tend to try it. While the average person
tends to accept that things are secure just because he is told that
they are, hackers will usually try them out. It's because of this
'trying out' that we can point out the problems with both the US
military computer security and this lock -- and we feel that, in both
cases, we have performed a service. People should be aware when they
are at risk so that they may take action to correct it."


Subject: CRIME IN CYBERSPACE session
Source: Jim Thomas (CuD)
Date: November 20, 1991

The CuD moderators, Mike Godwin of the Electronic Frontier Foundation,
and several other prominent scholars will participate in a panel on
"CRIME IN CYBERSPACE" at the American Criminological Society annual
meetings in San Francisco on Friday, November 22. Their session will
be in the Yorkshire Room of the St. Francis hotel from 1:15 to 2:45.

The complete session:

Chair:    Gordon Meyer: Co-editor Computer underground Digest

Mike Godwin (Staff Attorney, Electronic Frontier Foundation):
    "Criminal law and the computer youth culture"

Richard C. Hollinger (University of Florida):
    "Hackers, Crackers, and Pirates: Rethinking Social Control"

Lee Tien (University of California, Berkeley):
    "Folk Notions of Property & Privacy in the Information Society"

Jim Thomas (Northern Illinois University):
     "From Disk to Discourse: The Images of Techno-Evil"

Gary T. Marx (Department of Urban Studies and Planning): Discussant

Albrecht Funk (University of Hamburg): Discussant


Subject: Cracker charged in Australia
Date: August 13, 1991

The AP (8/13/91) reports from Melbourne that Nahshon Even-Chaim, a 20-year old
computer science student, is being charged in Melbourne's Magistrates' Court on
charges of gaining unauthorized access to one of CSIRO's (Australia's
government research institute) computers, and 47 counts of misusing Australia's
Telecom phone system for unauthorized access to computers at various US
institutions, including universities, NASA, Lawrence Livermore Labs, and
Execucom Systems Corp. of Austin, Texas, where it is alleged he destroyed
important files, including the only inventory of the company's assets. The
prosecution says that the police recorded phone conversations in which
Even-Chaim described some of his activities. No plea has been entered yet in
the ongoing pre-trial proceedings.


 -- Blow to Cable Industry
 -- Viewers Expected to Benefit From Many More Choices - New Lines Needed"
Source: Edmund L. Andrews in {The New York Times}
Date: October 25, 1991 at A1.

    In a surprising and controversial move to promote cable television
competition, the Federal Communications Commission proposed today that
local telephone companies be allowed to package and transmit
television programming.

    The proposed rules, which were unanimously endorsed and are likely
to be adopted within a year, would expose cable companies to the most
threatening competition yet.  But they could benefit cable television
consumers, many of whom have seen their bills double and triple in
recent years.

    The cable industry vowed to fight the proposals and threatened to
challenge the rules in court if they are adopted.  Telephone
companies, eager to enter a lucrative new business, applauded.


   "Today's action will create competition and offer consumers more
choices," said James R. Young, vice-president of regulatory and
industry relations at the Bell Atlantic Corporation.  "Let's hope it's
a beginning to the end of turf wars."

   In essence, the commission recommended that telephone companies be
allowed to offer "video dial tone" over telephone lines that would
carry programming produced by outside companies.  Consumers could view
whatever programs they pleased and would be charged accordingly.

    Initially, telephone companies would serve promarily as a
pipeline, not producing the programs.  But the commission said
telephone companies should also be allowed to organize and package
video services, as long as they make their networks available to all
programmers.  The commission also opened an inquiry on whether to let
telephone companies produce programs.


    The idea of allowing so-called video dial tone service has long
been a favorite of the F.C.C.'s chairman, Alfred C. Sikes.  Congress,
which is weighing regulatory legislation to rein in cable proces has
shied away from the issue.  Today's action makes it more likely that
lawmakers will have to reconsider the role of telephone companies in

    Before cable companies would feel much impact from today's F.C.C.
proposal, however, most telephone companies would have to spend
billions of dollars to install new fiber-optic transmission lines and
switching equipment that could carry large volumes of television
material.  Analysts have estimated that the cost of converting every
home in the country to a fiber-optic line would be $100 billion to
$200 billion and that it would take at least five years.

    Most large telephone companies, including all of the regional Bell
companies, already plan to replace their copper wires with fiber over
the next two decades.  The immense business opportunity posed by the
$18 billion cable television market is likely to accelerate those

    High-capacity communications lines that reach every home in
America could radically alter the distribution of entertainment and
enable people on home computers to tap distant libraries and obtain
information in seconds.

    "Both program providers and consumers would have chances they
don't have today, without the bottlenecks provided by cable companies
and without the bottlenecks of broadcasting," said Richard Firestone,
chief of the F.C.C.'s common carrier bureau.

    The move was immediately attacked by the National Cable Television
Association, which threatened to challenge any new rules in court.

    "Until and unless the telco's monopoly in voice telephone is
ended, no level of Government safeguards against cross-subsidies will
be effective," said James P. Mahoney, president of the cable


   The most controversial issue, which the F.C.C. raised for
discussion without recommendation, is whether telephone companies
should be allowed to produce programming, a much bigger business than
transmission.  Many Bush Administration officials favor such a move,
but television boradcasters and producers bitterly oppose it.
Officials noted that such a shift would require changes in the Cable
Television Act of 1984.

    "Among the top two or three concerns of ever cable operator has
always been head-to-head competition against local telephone
companies," said John Mansell, a senior analyst at Paul Kagan
Associates, a marketing-research firm that monitors the cable

    For telephone companies, the move could be a windfall.  Steven R.
Sieck, vice president of Link Resources Inc., a market-research firm
in New York, said, "It's by far the largest market opportunity among
the whole collection of information services" for telephone companies.

    It remains unclear, however, whether the new rules will survive in
court.  Teh Cable Television Act of 1984 bars a telephone company from
owning a cable television franchise in the same market.  The F.C.C.
ruled today, however, that the law does not prevent a local telephone
company from transmitting programs produced by other companies and
that it does not bar long-distance carriers in any way.

    The Bell companies have lobbied strongly for legislation that
would allow them to enter the cable business, and several companies
have invested in European cable franchises.  In addition, Pacific
Telesis Group, which provides local phone service in California,
already holds an option to buy a controlling interest in a Chicago
cable franchise, which could be [sic] permissible since it is outside
the company's telephone area.


    The commission also handed down a ruling that could give telephone
companies an important price advantage in future competition with
cable operators and could prompt protests from local governments,
ruling that neither a telephone company nor a video programmer needs
to pay franchise fees to local governments.

    Under the cable act, by contrast, local governments can charge
cable operators a franchise fee as high as five per cent of revenues.

    Explaining today's ruling, Mr. Sikes said, "We have segregation
laws, and these segregation laws should be ended."  He added that some
cable companies were already installing optical fibers in their own
networks, and that some were exploring the option of using their
netowrks to offer telephone service.

   The proposals mark the second major change in longstanding
restrictions on the telephone companies' ability to move into new
services.  Less than three weeks ago, a Federa appeals court cleared
the way for the regional Bell companies to begin providing information
services, like news, stock and sports tables, immediately.


Source: Bell Labs News
Date: October 28th, 1991

      These New Jersey Bell technicians are actually in the process of
taking a very well-behaved -- and the nation's oldest -- 1ESS(tm) out
of service.  The switch became the world's first commercial electronic
switching system when it was installed in Succasunna, NJ in 1965.  It
was replaced with a 5ESS(tm) on September 28th.

      The cutover was accomplished in three steps.  First, the new
5ESS was installed and hooked up to the incoming lines -- which were
also still going to the old switch -- but not powered up.  Then, at
1:00 AM, when there is relatively little traffic on the old switch,
the cables coming in to the 1ESS were quickly cut.  Once all the lines
were cut, the new switch was turned on.  The whole operation took only
a few minutes, and agencies involved in emergency services were
notified in advance of the brief service outage.

      The 1ESS design project, which was conducted at Whippany in the
early 60's, was the largest single development effort undertaken by
the Bell System up to that point, occupying more than 300 engineers
and technicians.

       AT&T Network Systems and New Jersey Bell are considering
donating part of the retired switch to the Smithsonian Institution.


Subject: Computer Saboteur Pleads Guilty
Source: Wire service report in the `Los Angeles Times', 5 Nov. '91, p. D2
Date: Wed, 6 Nov 1991

Computer Saboteur Pleads Guilty: Michael John Lauffenburger, 31, a former
General Dynamics computer programmer who planted a destructive `logic bomb' in
one of the San Diego defense contractor's mainframe computers, pleaded guilty
to one count of attempted computer tampering.  He faces up to one year in
prison and a fine of $100,000.

Federal prosecutors said Lauffenburger had hoped to increase his salary by
creating a problem only he could solve:  a program that was designed to destroy
a database of Atlas Rocket components.  He set the program to activate, then
resigned, hoping, investigators say, that the company would rehire him as a
highly paid consultant once it discovered the damage.  But another General
Dynamics programmer inadvertently ran across the program and alerted security,
which disarmed the program.

Bellcore has just announced a new edition of its Specification of
Signalling System Number 7 (issue 2). The notice that came my way in
the mail had a list price of USD$550, document number TR-NWT-000246.
Covered are such things as Message Transfer Part (MTP), Singalling
Connection Control Part (SCCP), ISDN User Part (ISUP), Transaction
Capabilities Application Part (TCAP), Operation, Maintenance and
Administration Part (OMAP) and Interworking of ISDN Access and Network

SS7 is a protocol that provides signalling within a telephone network;
the idea is that signalling is done on a common channel, away from the
voice circuits, in order to improve security and efficiency of
connections.  Practical examples of the network include the Caller
Number ID service (SS7 delivers the caller's number to the called
party) or the almost instantaneous call completion after Toronto-area
subscribers dial the last digit on most local phone calls.

I do not represent Bellcore; I'm just one who gets mailings from them.
For more information, contact 1 800 521.CORE (USA) or +1 908 699.5800
(other), or check the FAQ for more info (mail address, Bellcore's


Sent by: Erik Bloodaxe


Now you too can own an official Legion of Doom T-shirt.  This
is the same shirt that sold-out rapidly at the "Cyberview"
hackers conference in St. Louis.  Join the other proud owners
such as Lotus founder Mitch Kapor and award-winning author Bruce
Sterling by adding this collector's item to your wardrobe.  This
professionally made, 100 percent cotton shirt is printed on both
front and back.  The front displays "Legion of Doom Internet World
Tour" as well as a sword and telephone intersecting the planet
earth, skull-and-crossbones style.  The back displays the
words "Hacking for Jesus" as well as a substantial list of "tour-stops"
(internet sites) and a quote from Aleister Crowley.  This T-shirt is sold
only as a novelty item, and is in no way attempting to glorify computer

Shirts are only $15.00, postage included!  Overseas add an
additional $5.00.  Send check or money-order (No CODs, cash or
credit cards--even if it's really your card) made payable to
Chris Goggans to:

                   Chris Goggans
                   5300 N. Braeswood #4
                   Suite 181
                   Houston, TX 77096

[Editor's Note:  I have one, and for any collector this is an item that
                 is insurpassable -- JD]

                          /                        /
                          /    NIA073 / File 07    /
                          /   Hacking the HP3000   /
                          /       Malefactor       /
                          /                        /


  The HP3000 operating system MPE is a very intricate and varied system.
So varied is MPE that two systems running the same version of the OS
will reveal startling differances.  This file will be a general overview of MPE,

not a guide to any particular version.  The two primary types of MPE
systems you will encounter are MPE and MPE XL.  The difference between these
versions of MPE will be specifically indicated within this file, due to
the frequent occurance of such differances.

Identifying an HP3000

  HP3000's can be recognized quite easily.  Primarily, two prompts can
be obtained when first calling an HP3000...




  Another simple method of identifying an HP3000 is the error message


     Although the error message may vary, (CIERR XXXX) is relatively consistent.

Now once into an hp there can be 3 passwords per login, but there usually arn't
any.  Within the hp system, many default accounts exist; if there are
none, however, the hp printouts contain everything you need to get in.  This is
where trashing definately pays off.  Here is a listing of a few defaults/common

Hacking into an HP3000

  The HP3000 has numerous defaults/common accounts that are there I will
briefly list a few of them:

MGR.TELESUP             (Has SM privelege)
OPERATOR.SYS            (Has SM privelege)
FIELD.SUPPORT           (Has SM privelege)
MANAGER.SYS             (Has SM privelege)

  There will always be a MGR or MANAGER user under every account.  Because
when an account is created on an HP3000 a user must be created to manage
that account; thus, you have the manager or mgr.  Almost always the user will
be mgr.account, but occasionally manager is used.  Only two accounts, and manager.itf3000, usually do not appear as mgr.

Common Passwords and Password Explanation

  There are two types of passwords primarily encountered on the HP3000.
First and most common is staight MPE passwords which are entered at
login. The second and more sinister are the Security 3000 passwords,
which are entered after login.  Mainly, you will encounter MPE password
protection; however some system admins do utilize Security 3000 passwords.
Security 3000 passwords will be discussed at greater length later within
this file; I will now turn my attention to MPE passwords.

MPE Passwording Scheme and Account Structure

  The MPE passwording scheme works on all aspects of the login and can be
entered in two ways examples...

Example 1



Example 2


  The latter of these two methods is best, because it will allow multiple
failures on different accounts while the first will disconnect after
multiple invalid attempts on one account.

Account Structure

  The account structure is split into four groups and is formatted thusly;


  The session name and group name can be omitted for logon in most cases.
If, however a message at account login states, "NO HOME GROUP FOR
USER...", a group name then must be specified for that account.  The
default groupname is:


Logging into an HP3000


for example


     The above would log you into session LOSERS under the user FIELD and
account SUPPORT with password SUSAN under the group PUB with password SECRET.
Although this appears difficult, it is merely a formal example.  In reality
users are never passworded; the same goes for accounts.  The only part of
the HP that ever seems to be passworded is groups; and no group password
is needed to get in, since there are many ways around it.

  To logon to an HP3000, logon in the following manner:


 To hack the operators account, type:


  HELLO is the command on the HP3000 that begins an interactive session.

Occasionally the HP3000 will appear to be slow or pause and break
repeatedly; select a terminal type to remedy this situation.  The
primary terminal types are 9, 10, and 18.  A finer point under the MPE XL
operating system only 10 and 18 apply unless other terminal types have been
established with the Workstation Configurator Utility (This is not important
just trivial).  To hasten the process, logon similiarly:


HP3000 Defaults Passwords and Common Passwords

  The following is a list of the primary defaults and common account

Most Common and Default Passwords

HPONLY    (Almost always Telesup account Password)

  Here is a secondary list of passwords.  Mainly on the HP3000 you will find
names to be the most common password.

Secondary Password List

$MONEY    123ABC    ABC123    ADMIN    AGNES    ALYCE    AMY     APASS
ASDF      BARBAR    BEER      BELL     BETTY    BILL     BOB     BRUCE
WASH      WAVE      WEST      WIDGET   XYZ

Manipulating, Utilizing, and Raping the HP3000

  There are 5 things to do once you are inside your HP3000 to ensure
continued access and prosperity.  The canonistic approach to take is:

Five Points of Interest

Check to See Who is on the System

  To check who is the HP3000, simply type:


Pulling NUA's of Systems Networked with your HP3000

  To pull the NUA's of the systems your HP3000 is networked with, type:


  After running this program, type list and a list of NUA's and parameters
will appear.

Grabbing the Password File

  To grab the entire password file, turn on the buffer and type:


  This will list all of the users and passwords, there accounts they are
under, and the accounts password.  On MPE XL OS
you will have to issue a...


Check for Telamon Software

  To check for Telamon Software do this:


  An error or a listing will be released if Telamon Software is on
the system.  Telamon is networking software that allows HP3000's to dialout
via the nets to; Dow Jones, Compuserve, Dialog, Easylink, etc...  By looking
through the Telamon files NUI and passwords to these systems can be
obtained.  The passwords are usually stored in easily recognizable files
(i.e.  EASYPW would be thier EASYLINK password.)  NUI's they can usually be
pulled out of AUTODIAL.

Creating an Account and User and Account/User Parameters

  The next step to do is create an account and user ID  for yourself;
according to the following command.


Explanation of above...

NEWACCT        = Command to create account
HACK           = Accountname
MALEF          = Manager of the account HACK
PASS=MALEF     = Sets the account password to RBOCR
;              = Parameters Separator
CAP=Whatever   = This is the capabilities listing of the account see
                 chart below.

Capabilities Listing

System Manager                     = SM
Account Manager                    = AM
Account Librarian                  = AL
Group Librarian                    = GL
Diagnostician                      = DI
System Supervisor                  = OP
Network Administrator              = NA
Node Manager                       = NM
Save Files                         = SF
Access to Nonshareable I/O Devices = ND
Use Volumes                        = UV
Create Volumes                     = CV
Use Communication Subsystem        = CS
Programmatic Sessions              = PS
User Logging                       = LG
Process Handling                   = PH
Extra Data Segments                = DS
Multiple RINs                      = MR
Priveleged Mode                    = PM
Interactive Access                 = IA
Batch Access                       = BA

  One last task remains type;


Explanation of above:

ALTUSER        = Command to modify user
MALEF          = Username to be modified
HACK           = Account that user is in
HOME=PUB       = Sets users home group to pub
PASS=RBOCR     = This sets users password to RBOCR
CAP=SM,AM...   = This is the Capabilities of the User
;              = Parameters Seperator

  The capabilities listings for both the user and the account are
identical.  Briefly mentioned here are a few more commands.

NEWUSER     (Creates New user)      1

ALTUSER     (Modifies User)         1
PURGEUSER   (Deletes User)          1

NEWACCT     (Creates New Account)   2
ALTACCT     (Modifies Account)      3
PURGEACCT   (Deletes Account)       3

NEWGROUP    (Creates New group)     4
ALTGROUP    (Modifies Group)        4
PURGEGROUP  (Deletes Group)         4

  All of these commands with the exception of the purge command work in
the same fashion.  Here is a general algorithm for their use with the numbers
corresponding to the operation:

            1         2       3       4

  The only other exception that is of concern is the difference between
user + account capabilities and group capabilities.  The group capabilities
are differant and below follows a list.

Group Capabilities

Process Handling     = PH
Extra Data Segments  = DS
Multiple RN's        = MR
Priveleged Mode      = PM
Interactive Access   = IA
Batch Access         = BA

It is neccessary to be cognizant of the fact rules regarding accounts, users,
and groups.  A User's capabilities cannot exceed the accounts capabilities for
example a user cannot have SM privelege if the account doesn't have SM
privelege, the same applies to groups.  A group cannot have PM privelege
if the account doesn't have PM privelege.  However, just because an account has
SM privelege doesn't mean a user automatically gets SM privelege and the same
goes for groups.

User Defined Commands (UDC's)

  User defined commands are self-explanatory, and are user defined commands.
These commands are stored in catalogs throughout the system.  An HP3000
may have multiple catalogs each with different commands.  To list the commands


  This will print out a listing of commands for furthur information on a
particular command type:

HELP command

  To execute a particular command, type the command's name. i.e.


(Note: SJ is a commonly found UDC that is showjob just shortened to SJ)

  UDC's can be found under almost any account on the HP3000 and are usually
named XXXUDC or SYSUDC or UDC1 etc...  To peruse other UDC files that may
have nice commands you can add them to your existing catalog like so...


Explanaiton of above:

SYSUDC    = The UDC file
PUB       = The group the UDC file is located in
SYS       = The account the UDC file is located in
;         = Parameter Separator
APPEND    = Adds UDC file to existing UDC file w/o overwriting it

  However this only works on MPE XL and not MPE to add another catalog
on MPE you will have to type:


  There isn't much of a differance to complain of, but always remember
to reset the catalog to what it formally was before you began fucking
with it.  I cannot stress this fact enough if the legitemate user notices
a differant UDC catalog (which he will unless he is ray charles) then the
system will be alerted to intrusion.

   UDC can also have lockwords these are stored in and
can be pulled from there or are in a listf,-2 or a listf,-3 depending on the MPE version you are under.

  Creating UDC's is very simple go to the editor and follow the


That is the format for the showjob command.  This is how UDC files are
created simply the UDC command;MPE command;***.  There are a few minimal
parameters to take into account and options.  Today we will deal only
with the options.

LOGIN    - Command executes at login
NOLOGIN  - Standard format doesn't execute at login (default)
HELP     - Help for udc (default)
NOHELP   - This won't give help for UDC
BREAK    - Can break out of command (default)
NOBREAK  - Can't break out of command
LIST     - Error reporting with ^
NOLIST   - No error reporting (default)


  What follows now is a standard UDC file I use slightly modified for
general public use, but still nonetheless useful.  Here is how to do it and
set it word for word.  This is basically a unix command crossover for



option login




  Now your done.

Files, Directories, and Parameters

  I will begin this section with two listings of file codes with both the
Integer value and the Mnemonic.  These are charts to be used for referance and
will come in handy.

File Codes for MPE

Integer    Mnemonic  Meaning
1024       USL      User Subprogram Library
1025       BASD     BASIC Data
1026       BASP     BASIC Program
1027       BASFP    BASIC Fast Program
1028       RL       Relocatable Library
1029       PROG     Program file
1030       NMPRG    Native Mode Program file
1031       SL       Segmented Library
1032       NMSL     Native Mode Executable Library file
1033       NMRL     Native Mode Relocatable Library file
1035       VFORM    View Form file
1036       VFAST    View Fast Forms file
1037       VREF     View Reformat file
1040       XLSAV    Cross Loader ASCII file (SAVE)
1041       XLBIN    Cross Loader Relocated Binary file
1042       XLDSP    Cross Loader ASCII file (DISPLAY)
1050       EDITQ    Edit Quick file
1051       EDTCQ    Edit KEEPQ file (COBOL)
1052       EDTCT    Edit TEXT file (COBOL)
1054       TDPDT    TDP Diary file
1055       TDPQM    TDP Proof Marked QMARKED
1056       TDPP     TDP Proof marked non-COBOL file
1057       TDPCP    TDP Proof Marked COBOL file
1058       TDPQ     TDP Workfile
1059       TDPXQ    TDP Workfile (COBOL)
1060       RJEPN    RJE Punch file
1070       QPROC    QUERY Procedure file
1080       KSAMK    KSAM Key file
1083       GRAPH    GRAPH Specification file
1084       SD       Self-describing file
1090       LOG      User Logging logfile
1100       WDOC     HPWORD Document
1101       WDICT    HPWORD Hyphenation dictionary
1102       WCONF    HPWORD Configuration file
1103       W2601    HPWORD Attended Printer Environment
1110       PCELL    IFS/3000 Character Cell file
1111       PFORM    IFS/3000 Form file
1112       PENV     IFS/3000 Environment file
1113       PCCMP    IFS/3000 Compiled Character Cell file
1114       RASTR    Graphics Image in RASTR Format
1130       OPTLF    OPT/3000 logfile
1131       TEPES    TEPE/3000 Script file
1132       TEPEL    TEPE/3000 logfile
1133       SAMPL    APS/3000 logfile
1139       MPEDL    MPEDCP/DRP logfile
1140       TSR      HPToolset Root file
1141       TSD      HPToolset Data file
1145       DRAW     Drawing File for HPDRAW
1146       FIG      Figure File for HPDRAW
1147       FONT     Reserved
1148       COLOR    Reserved
1149       D48      Reserved
1152       SLATE    Compressed SLATE file
1153       SLATW    Expanded SLATE workfile
1156       DSTOR    Store file for RAPID/3000 Utility DICTDBU
1157       TCODE    Code file for Transact/3000 Compiler
1158       RCODE    Code file for Report/3000 Compiler
1159       ICODE    Code file for Inform/3000 Compiler
1166       MDIST    HPDESK Distribution list
1167       MTEXT    HPDESK Text
1168       MARPA    ARPA Message file
1169       MARPD    ARPA Distribution list
1170       MCMND    HPDESK Abbreviated Commands file
1171       MFRTM    Reserved
1172       Reserved
1173       MEFT     Reserved
1174       MCRPT    Reserved
1175       MSERL    Reserved
1176       UCSF     Reserved
1177       TTYPE    Term Type file
1178       TVFC     Term Vertical Format Control file
1192       NCONF    Network Configuration file
1193       NTRAC    Network Trace file
1194       NLOG     Network logfile
1195       MIDAS    Reserved
1211       ANODE    Reserved
1212       INODE    Reserved
1213       INVRT    Reserved
1214       EXCEP    Reserved
1215       TAXON    Reserved
1216       QUERF    Reserved
1217       DOCDR    Reserved
1226       VC       VC file
1227       DIF      DIF file
1228       LANGD    Language Definition file
1229       CHARD    Character Set Definition File
1230       MGCAT    Formatted Application Message Catalog
1236       BMAP     Reserved
1242       BDATA    Basic Data file
1243       BFORM    Basic Field Order File for VPLUS
1244       BSAVE    Basic Saved Program file
1245       BCNFG    Config. File for Default Option Basic Program
1246       BKEY     Function Key Definition file
1258       PFSTA    Pathflow STATIC file
1259       PFDYN    Pathflow DYNAMIC file
1270       RTDCA    Revisable Form DCA Document*
1271       FFDCA    Document Interchange Unit file HPWORD/150
1272       DIU      DISOSS Filing Information file
1273       PDOC     Search Result Information file
1275       DFI      Reserved
1276       SRI      HPMAP/3000 Map Specification file
1401       CWPTX    Reserved
1421       MAP      Reserved
1422       GAL      HPBRW Dictionary file
1425       TTX      HPBRW Specification file
1428       RDIC     HPBRW Specification file (frozen)
1429       RSPEC    HPBRW Execution file
1430       RSPCF    HPBRW Report Job file
1431       REXEC    HPBRW Intermediate Report file
1432       RJOB     HPBRW Dictionary Output file
1433       ROUTI    HPBRW Print file
1434       ROUTD    HPBRW Configuration file
1435       PRINT    Reserved
1436       RCONF    Native Mode Object file
1441       PIF      PASCAL Source Library
1461       NMOBJ    Reserved
1462       PASLB    PASCAL Source Library
3333       Reserved

File Codes for MPE XL

Integer   Mnemonic  Meaning
1024      USL       User Subprogram Library
1025      BASD      Basic Data
1026      BASP      Basic Program
1027      BASFP     Basic Fast Program
1028      RL        Compatibility Mode Relocatable Library
1029      PROG      Compatibility Mode Program File
1030      NMPROG    Native Mode Program File
1031      SL        Segmented Library
1032      NMXL      Native Mode Executable Library
1033      NMRL      Native Mode Relocatable Library
1035      VFORM     VPLUS Forms File
1036      VFAST     VPLUS Fast Forms File
1037      VREF      VPLUS Reformat File
1040      XLSAV     Cross Loader ASCII File (SAVE)
1041      XLBIN     Cross Loader Relocated Binary File
1042      XLDSP     Cross Loader ASCII File (DISPLAY)
1050      EDITQ     Edit Quick File
1051      EDTCQ     Edit KEEPQ File (COBOL)
1052      EDTCT     Edit TEXT File (COBOL)
1054      TDPDT     TDP Diary File
1055      TDPQM     TDP Proof Marked QMARKED
1056      TDPP      TDP Proof Marked non-COBOL File
1057      TDPCP     TDP Proof Marked COBOL File
1058      TDPQ      TDP Work File
1059      TDPXQ     TDP Work File (COBOL)
1060      RJEPN     RJE Punch File
1070      QPROC     QUERY Procedure File
1080      KSAMK     KSAM Key File
1083      GRAPH     GRAPH Specification File
1084      SD        Self-describing File
1090      LOG       User Logging Log File
1100      WDOC      HPWORD Document
1101      WDICT     HPWORD Hyphenation Dictionary
1102      WCONF     HPWORD Configuration File
1103      W2601     HPWORD Attended Printer Environment
1110      PCELL     IFS/3000 Character Cell File
1111      PFORM     IFS/3000 Form File
1112      PENV      IFS/3000 Environment File
1113      PCCMP     IFS/3000 Compiled Character Cell File
1114      RASTR     Graphics Image in RASTER Format
1130      OPTLF     OPT/3000 Log File
1131      TEPES     TEPE/3000 Script File
1132      TEPEL     TEPE/3000 Log File
1133      SAMPL     APS/3000 Log File
1139      MPEDL     MPEDCP/DRP Log File
1140      TSR       HPToolset Root File
1141      TSD       HPToolset Data File
1145      DRAW      Drawing File for HPDRAW
1146      FIG       Figure File for HPDRAW
1147      FONT      Reserved
1148      COLOR     Reserved
1149      D48       Reserved
1152      SLATE     Compressed SLATE File
1153      SLATW     Expanded SLATE Work File
1156      DSTOR     RAPID/3000 DICTDBU Utility Store File
1157      TCODE     Code File for Transact/3000 Compiler
1158      RCODE     Code File for Report/3000 Compiler
1159      ICODE     Code File for Inform/3000 Compiler
1166      MDIST     HPDESK Distribution list
1167      MTEXT     HPDESK Text
1168      MARPA     ARPA Messages File
1169      MARPD     ARPA Distribution List
1170      MCMND     HPDESK Abbreviated Commands File
1171      MFRTM     HPDESK Diary Free Time List
1172      None      Reserved
1173      MEFT      HPDESK External File Transfer Messages File
1174      MCRPT     HPDESK Encrypted Item
1175      MSERL     HPDESK Serialized (Composite) Item
1176      VCSF      Version Control System File
1177      TTYPE     Terminal Type File
1178      TVFC      Terminal Vertical Format Control File
1192      NCONF     Network Configuration File
1193      NTRAC     Network Trace File
1194      NTLOG     Network Log File
1195      MIDAS     Reserved
1211      NDIR      Reserved
1212      INODE     Reserved
1213      INVRT     Reserved
1214      EXCEP     Reserved
1215      TAXON     Reserved
1216      QUERF     Reserved
1217      DOCDR     Reserved
1226      VC        VC File
1227      DIF       DIF File
1228      LANGD     Language Definition File
1229      CHARD     Character Set Definition File
1230      MGCAT     Formatted Application Message Catalog
1236      BMAP      Base Map Specification File
1242      BDATA     BASIC Data File
1243      BFORM     BASIC Field Order File for VPLUS
1244      BSAVE     BASIC Saved Program File
1245      BCNFG     Configuration File for Default Option BASIC Program
1246      BKEY

     Function Key Definition File for Terminal
1247      BSVXL     Business Basic/XL Program File
1248      BDTXL     Business Basic/XL Data File
1249      BDNCM     Business Basic/V Binary File
1258      PFSTA     Pathflow Static File
1259      PFDYN     Pathflow Dynamic File
1270      RFDCA     Revisable Form DCA Data Stream
1271      FFDCA     Final Form DCA Data Stream
1272      DIU       Document Interchange Unit File
1273      PDOC      HPWORD/150 Document
1275      DFI       DISOSS Filing Information File
1276      SRI       Search Restart Information File
1401      CWPTX     Chinese Word Processor Text File
1421      MAP       HPMAP/3000 Map Specification File
1422      GAL       Reserved
1425      TTX       Reserved
1428      RDIC      HP Business Report Writer (BRW) Dictionary File CM
1429      RSPEC     BRW Specification File
1430      RSPCF     BRW Specification File
1431      REXEC     BRW Execution File
1432      RJOB      BRW Report Job File
1433      ROUTI     BRW Intermediate Report File
1434      ROUTD     BRW Dictionary OUTPUT
1435      PRINT     BRW Print File
1436      RCONF     BRW Configuration File
1437      RDICN     BRW NM Dictionary File
1438      REXNM     BRW NM Execution File
1441      PIF       Reserved
1461      NMOBT     Native Mode Object File
1462      PASLB     Pascal Source Library
1476      TIFF      TAG Image File Format
1477      RDF       Revisable Document Format
1478      SOF       Serial Object File
1479      GPH       Chart File for Charting Gallery Chart
1480      GPD       Data File for Charting Gallery Chart
1483      VCGPM     Virtuoso Code Generator Proccessed Micro File
1484      FRMAT     Formatter
1485      DUMP      Dump Files Created and used by IDAT and DPAN
1486      NWMD0     New Wave Mail Distribution List
1491      X4HDR     X.400 Header for HPDesk Manager
1500      WP1       Reserved
1501      WP2       Reserved
1502      LO123     Lotus 123 Spread Sheet
1514      FPCF      Form Tester Command Spec File
1515      INSP      Spooler XL Input Spool File
1516      OUTSP     Spooler XL Output Spool File
1517      CHKSP     Spooler XL Checkpoint File
1521      DSKIT     HPDesk Intrinsics Transaction File
1526      MSACK     Mail Server Acknowledgement
1527      MSNDN     Mail Server Non-Delivery Notification
1528      MSTRC     Mail Server Trace File
3333                Reserved

  Briefly I would like to explain the directory structure under MPE.  The
structure is very bizarre, but not as bad as VMS.  In MPE you have accounts
and groups, the groups are sub-directories so to speak of, of the accounts.
The accounts are separate entities in that one account cannot be directly
logged to from another account.  For example if you are under the SYS account
you can look at files in the COGNOS account, but you cannot change directories
to the COGNOS account.  The account you start off in is your working account/
directory.  (Note:  There is no true directory structure under MPE, but the
allegory may help out some readers.)  The same principle holds true most of the
time for groups except under the latter versions of MPE XL where a CHGROUP
command has been added.  This command allows you to change groups. i.e.


Explanation of above

chgroup      = The command to change groups
private      = The group name switched to
/            = separator
secret       = This is the password to the group private

  This is simple enough and really needed no explanation, but we need to be
christian even to the slow ones.  The next most important command is listf
this will give a files listing and has various differant combinations and
parameters, but I wont go into it basically there are 3 parameters you need
to know.

LISTF @.@.@,-3

Explanation of Above (needed)

LISTF       = Command to list files
@           = 1st @ is the wildcard in the file specification slot
@           = 2nd @ is the wildcard in the group specification slot
@           = 3rd @ is the wildcard in the account specification slot
,           = separator
-3          = parameter which will list the lockword on a file if any

  The other parameters are these -3 is for MPE XL only and will list the
lockword if the file is password protected more on this later.  The -2
specification will list the lockword under MPE.  The 1 specification will
list the account/group the file is under good for doing searches and getting
more information.

Examples of LISTF

LISTF @.PUB.SYS   = lists all files in the group pub under the account sys

LISTF LIST@.@.@,1 = will list all files and accounts/groups that thier in; that
                    begin with the word list this is how you will have to
                    search for a listfile or listtext program since MPE
                    doesn't provide one for you.  Otherwise you won't be able
                    to type text files to the screen.

LISTF ?????UDC.@.ROBELLE,1 = this will search for anything beginning with 5
                             alphanumeric characters and ending with UDC
                             under the account robelle the '?' is the wildcard
                             for single alphanumerics.

File Security Provisions

  ALTSEC is the command to modify RWX permissions on a file or device.
To modify security on a file you would simply do the following.


Explanation of Above

ALTSEC      = Command to modify security provisions
FILENAME    = The file simply
;           = Separator
ACCESS=     = What you are specifying
(           = Open Parenthesis for permissions
RWX:CR      = Read, Write, Execute for the creator
R:ANY       = Read any user
)           = Close parenthesis for permissions

  This is basically simple enough below follows the mode types i.e. RWX,
and a second chart for user types.

Mode Types
R  = Read
W  = Write
X  = Execute
L  = Lock
A  = Append

Note: both lock and append privs' are granted with W (write) privelege.

User Types
ANY = Any user
AC  = Account members only
GU  = Group members only
AL  = Account Librarian

HP3000 EDIT/3000

   The HP3000 editor basically sucks but it will always be there if you
need it so here goes.


   Now you should be in the editor the commands that follow are the most
useful a full editor command list will be in the end of this portion you
can play with the others if you want to.

ADD    - Begins editing section this adds lines to an existing file or
         creates a new one.
END    - Exits the editor.
KEEP   - This saves your work format; "KEEP FILENAME".
//     - This puts you back into command mode.
TEXT   - This loads a file into the editor format; "TEXT FILENAME"
LIST   - This lists the file examples...
         1. LIST X    - lists x line number.
         2. LIST X/Y  - lists range of numbers x -> y.
         3. LIST ALL  - lists everything
MODIFY - This modifies a line number see below for explanation.
XPLAIN - Help on editor commands format; "XPLAIN MODIFY".
DELETE - Deletes lines.
JOIN   - Imports/adds another text file to the existing file in memory.
GATHER - Move lines and fix's line numbers.

  The HP3000 editor uses basic conventions with Delete, List, etc... in
form listed above i.e. LIST 1, 2, and 3.  These conventions apply to all
commands where applicable.  To insert lines in the middle of text you
can add 6.1 or 6.01 or 6.001.  Then use the gather command to resort the
line numbers into integers.

  The modify command is very archaic to say the least for example their
are three primary commands D, I, R which are Delete, Insert, Replace
respectively;  These commands are sub-commands of modify.  Here is how
it works...


now let's say X says, "sakdfjs HAck or Dei"
to correct this line we would do the following

sakdfjs HAck or DEi
d      d           (This deletes a range of letters)
HAck or Dei
 ra                (This replaces A with the letter a)
Hack or Dei
          d        (This deletes the i)
Hack or De
         ii        (This inserts an i)

  Now this is very painful and takes time to get used to, but I never
said the editor was good.  Many HP's have other editors besides
EDIT/3000, but to explain them all would be too time-consuming.  The
best or my favorite is QEDIT which can be found in the robelle account
if it is there.  A nice shortcut is that editor commands can be
abbreviated i.e. T filename as opposed to text filename.  This makes it
a little better, but not much.

Screen Blanking

  This is basically a stupid trick but a nice way to keep people from
watching over your shoulder.  Here is how it goes.


  This makes everything you type not echo.


   Unfortunatly the finalized version of this file was wiped, therefore
this is the shortened version.  I didn't want to re-type the rest of it.
It wouldn't meet the deadline.


[Editors Note:  The second part of this file should come out into a later
                issue.  -JD ]

                       /                       /
                       /    NIA073 / File 08   /
                       /  HoHoCon/XmasCon '91  /
                       /      Santa Claus      /
                       /                       /

NIA & Phrack Magazine, & dFx International Digest Are Proud To Present:

                           The Second Annual

                             X M A S C O N

Who: All Hackers, Journalists, Security Personnel, Federal Agents, Lawyers,
     Authors and Other Interested Parties.

Where:                 Houston Airport Hilton Inn
                          500 North Belt East
                         Houston, Texas  77060
                          Tel: (713) 931-0101
                          Fax: (713) 931-3523

When:      Friday December 27 through Sunday December 29, 1991

Yes, ladies and gentlemen, you read it right... Xmascon has returned! This
will undoubtedly be the telecom event of the year. Unlike certain conferences
in the past, Xmascon 91 has a devoted and dedicated staff who are putting in
an unmentionable ammount of time to ensure a large, vast and organized
collection of some of the most diversified people in the telecommunications
world. The event will be open to the public so that anyone may attend and
learn more about the different aspects of computer security.

                           Hotel Information

The Houston Airport Hilton Inn is located about 6 miles from Intercontinental
Airport. The Xmascon group room rates are $49.00 plus tax (15%) per night,
your choice of either single or double. There are also 7 suites availble, the
prices of which vary from $140 to $250. You can call the hotel to find out
the differences and availability of the suites, and you will also NEED to
tell them you are with the Xmascon Conference to receive the reduced room
rate, otherwise, you will be paying $69.00. There is no charge for children,
regardless of age, when they occupy the same room as their parents. Specially
designed rooms for the handicapped are available. The hotel provides free
transportation to and from the airport, as well as neighbouring Greenspoint
Mall, every 30 minutes on the hour, and on call, if needed. There are 2
restaurants in the hotel. The Wicker Works is open until 11:00 pm, and The
Forty Love is open 24 Hours. There will also be breakfast, lunch and dinner
buffets each day. There is a piano bar, The Cycle Club, as well as a sports
bar, Chaps, which features numerous table games, large screen tv, and a disco
with a DJ. Within the hotel compound, there are 3 pools, 2 of which are
indoors, a jacuzzi, a miniature golf course, and a fully equipped health club
which features universal weights, a whirlpool and sauna. A car rental agency
is located in the hotel lobby, and you can arrange to pick your car up at
either the airport or the hotel. Xmascon attendees are entitled to a
discounted rate. Contact the hotel for more information.

Xmascon will last 3 days, with the main conference being held on Saturday,
December 28, in the Osage meeting room, starting at 12:00 p.m. and continuing
on throughout the evening. This year, we have our own complete wing of the
hotel, which is housed around a 3,000 square foot atrium ballroom. The wing
is completely seperated from the rest of the hotel, so we are strongly
encouraging people to make their reservations as far in advance as possible
to enusre themselves a room within our area.

                  Why To Contact Us, And How To Do It

We are hoping to have a number of people speak on a varied assortment of
topics. If you would like to speak, please contact us as soon as possible and
let us know who you are, who you represent (if anyone), the topic you wish to
speak on, a rough estimate of how long you will need, and whether or not you
will be needing any audio-visual aids.

There will be a display case inside the meeting room which will hold items of
telecom interest. Specific items that will be available, or that we hope to
have, include the first issues of 2600, Tap, Mondo 2000, and other magazines,
non-computer related magazines that feature articles of interest, a wide
array of boxes, the Quaker Oats 2600 mhz whistle, The Metal AE, etc. We will
also have a VCR and monitor set up, so if you have any interesting videos
(such as the Unsolved Mysteries show featuring Kevin Poulsen), or if you have
anything you think people would enjoy having the chance to see, please let us
know ahead of time, and tell us if you will need any help getting it to the
conference. If all else fails, just bring it to the con and give it to us
when you arrive.

Media support has been very strong so far. Publications that have agreed to
print pre-conference announcements and stories include Computer World, Info
World, New York Times, San Francisco Chronicle, Austin Chronicle, Houston
Chronicle, Independent Journal, Mondo 2000, CuD, Informatik, a leading
Japanese computer magazine, NME, Regeneration (Germany), and a few other
European based magazines. PBS stations WHNY, WNET, and KQED, as well as the
stations that carry their syndicated shows, will be mentioning the conference
also. If you are a journalist and would like to do a story on Xmascon 91, or
know someone who would, contact us with any questions you may have, or feel
free to use and reprint any information in this file.

If anyone requires any additional information, needs to ask any questions,
wants to RSVP, or would like to be added to the mailing list to receive the
Xmascon updates, you may write to either myself (Drunkfux), Judge Dredd, or
Lord Macduff via Internet at:


Or via US Mail at:

                         Hard Data Corporation
                               ATTN: HoHo
                             P.O. Box 60695
                             Houston, Texas

We will hopefully have an 800 mailbox before the next update is sent out. If
someone cares to donate a decent one, that will stay up throughout the end of
the year, please let us know. We should also be listing a few systems as an
alternative form of reaching us.

Xmascon 91 will be a priceless learning experience for professionals, and
gives journalists a chance to gather information and ideas direct from the
source. It is also one of the very few times when all the members of the
computer underground can come together for a realistic purpose. We urge
people not to miss out on an event of this caliber, which doesn't happen very
often. If you've ever wanted to meet some of the most famous people from the
hacking community, this may be your one and only chance. Don't wait to read
about it in all the magazines, and then wish you had attended, make your
plans to be there now! Be a part of our largest and greatest conference ever.

Remember, to make your reservations, call (713) 931-0101 and tell them you're
with Xmascon.

"In closing...  if you miss this one, you're only cheating yourself."
                                                        -- Drunkfux

---cut here---

                                         This is the famous HoHoCow,
                                   **    we know of no other cow which
                                   /\    costs so much to keep at HoHo.  Our
                                  ****   exclusive beechwood grazing produces
                                  (00)   a Mooo-ability, smellabiltiy, and
                           /-------\/    a milkability you will find in no
                          / |h0h0 ||     other cow in any other state!
                         *  ||W---||                 --The CowWeiser Creed
                            ^^    ^^
       Its H0H0C0W (wha'd ya'll 'spect? Yer comin' to Texas!)
                (C)Special SantaClausASCII Graphix

---cut here---

---paste here---
                           /                     /
                           /   NIA073/ File 09   /
                           /  Editor's Comments  /
                           /      JD & LMcD      /
                           /                     /

    Well, another issue out the gateway here at NIA.  Things have been
rather hectic here, with the Xmascon planning, Lord Macduff's new baby and
classes starting again.  We hope you enjoy this issue, and look for another
around the first of the new year.

    We'd like to take this chance to ask the readers for their submissions,
questions comments, donations of used equipment, and anything else they may
care to send. Please direct all items to

    Back issues of NIA and first releases of new issues can be obtained
from the CuD archive servers (Refer: CuD Magazine) and
EFF archive server (Refer: EFF Magazine)  Also a bbs entitled
Internal Affairs (HOUTX), TTR (TinselTown Rebellion Node 2 @ 713.952.7971),
RipCo BBS (1.312.528.5020), Blitzkrieg (TAP) and the current Phrack home
archives the magazine.

    I thank the contributers who have been sending in donations in the
way of files, hardware, information and other things.  Please keep on doing
so.  In addition, Len Rose has a fund, please contact EFF (Refer: / 617.864.0665) to donate.

    We look forward to seeing all of you at HoHoCon, and urge you to make
your reservations _now_. The hotel has been filling up quickly and there are
only a few rooms left (Refer: NIA073 / File 07).

    "There's nothing worse than a bad haircut. You go around looking like a
dork...half apologizing always self concious, totally out of your groove for
about a week. But at least you're reading NIA."
                                  - C.N.  11/16/91

Keep The Faith,
Ignorance, There Is No Excuse.